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Table 2 Modified Helbich scoring system for HRCT and MRI

From: Lung disease assessment in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a comparison between chest high-field magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution computed tomography findings

  Score
Category 0 1 2 3
Severity of bronchiectasis Absent Mild (lumen slightly greater than diameter of adjacent blood vessel) Moderate (lumen 2 to 3 times the diameter of the vessel) Severe (lumen > 3 times the diameter of the vessel)
Severity of peribronchial wall thickening Absent Mild (wall thickness equal to diameter of adjacent vessel) Moderate (wall thickness greater than and up to twice the diameter of adjacent vessel) Severe (wall thickness more than twice the diameter of adjacent vessel)
Extent of bronchiectasis Absent 1–5# 6–9# > 9#
Extent of mucous plugging Absent 1–5# 6–9# > 9#
Extent of sacculations or abscesses Absent 1–5# 6–9# > 9#
Generation of bronchial divisions involved (bronchiectasis or plugging) Absent Up to the 4th generation Up to the 5th generation Up to the 6th generation and distal
Severity of bullae Absent Unilateral (not > 4) Bilateral (not > 4) > 4
Severity of emphysema Absent 1–5# > 5# Not applicable
Severity of collapse or consolidation Absent Subsegmental Segmental or lobar Not applicable
  1. # Numbers of bronchopulmonary segments.