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Table 1 Non-invasive tests for intestinal and pancreatic digestive-absorptive functions and for intestinal inflammation.

From: Isolated liver transplantation for treatment of liver failure secondary to intestinal failure


Normal values



α1-antitrypsin concentration

< 0.9 mg/g

increased intestinal permeability/protein loss

Catassi C et al. J Pediatr 1986;109:500-502


<2.5% (older than 2 years)

fecal fat loss

Guarino A et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr1992;14:268-274

Fecal reducing substances


carbohydrate malabsorption

Lindquist BL et al. Arch Dis Child 1976;51:319-321

Elastase concentration

> 200 ug/g stool

exocrine pancreatic dysfunction

Carroccio A et al. Gut 1998;43:558-563

Chymotrypsin concentration

> 7.5 U/g

> 375 U/24 h

exocrine pancreatic dysfunction

Carroccio A et al. Gastroenterology 1997;112:1839-1844

Fecal occult blood


fecal blood loss, distal intestinal inflammation

Fine KD. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1163-1167

Calprotectin concentration

100 ug/g

intestinal inflammation

Fagerberg UL et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2003;37:468-72

Fecal leukocytes

< 5/microscopic field

colonic inflammation

Harris JC et al. 1972;76:697-703

Nitric oxide in rectal dyalisate

< 5 uM of NO2-/NO3-

rectal inflammation

Berni Canani R et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:1574-1576

Dual sugar (cellobiose/mannitol) absorption test

Urine excretion ratio: 0.010+0.018

Increased intestinal permeability

Catassi C, et al. J. Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2008;46:41-47

Xylose oral load

25 mg %

Absorptive surface

Craig RM, Ehrenpreis ED J Clin Gastroenterol 1999; 29:143-50

Iron absorption test

Based on percentile reference


De Vizia et al. J. Pediatri Gastroentrol Nutr. 1992;14-21-6