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Table 1 Non-invasive tests for intestinal and pancreatic digestive-absorptive functions and for intestinal inflammation.

From: Isolated liver transplantation for treatment of liver failure secondary to intestinal failure

Test Normal values Implication Reference
α1-antitrypsin concentration < 0.9 mg/g increased intestinal permeability/protein loss Catassi C et al. J Pediatr 1986;109:500-502
Steatocrit <2.5% (older than 2 years) fecal fat loss Guarino A et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr1992;14:268-274
Fecal reducing substances absent carbohydrate malabsorption Lindquist BL et al. Arch Dis Child 1976;51:319-321
Elastase concentration > 200 ug/g stool exocrine pancreatic dysfunction Carroccio A et al. Gut 1998;43:558-563
Chymotrypsin concentration > 7.5 U/g
> 375 U/24 h
exocrine pancreatic dysfunction Carroccio A et al. Gastroenterology 1997;112:1839-1844
Fecal occult blood absent fecal blood loss, distal intestinal inflammation Fine KD. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1163-1167
Calprotectin concentration 100 ug/g intestinal inflammation Fagerberg UL et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2003;37:468-72
Fecal leukocytes < 5/microscopic field colonic inflammation Harris JC et al. 1972;76:697-703
Nitric oxide in rectal dyalisate < 5 uM of NO2-/NO3- rectal inflammation Berni Canani R et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:1574-1576
Dual sugar (cellobiose/mannitol) absorption test Urine excretion ratio: 0.010+0.018 Increased intestinal permeability Catassi C, et al. J. Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2008;46:41-47
Xylose oral load 25 mg % Absorptive surface Craig RM, Ehrenpreis ED J Clin Gastroenterol 1999; 29:143-50
Iron absorption test Based on percentile reference   De Vizia et al. J. Pediatri Gastroentrol Nutr. 1992;14-21-6