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Table 1 Aortopexy review of the literature

From: Aortopexy for the treatment of tracheomalacia in children: review of the literature

Author Period SIGN classification Cause of TM Diagnostic Intraoperative broncoscopy Operation Complication/ reoperations Outcome F-UP months
Schwartz et al. J Pediatr Surg 1980 1977-1979 D 8 OA 8BS 8B 8 8 AP 1 VRD 7G 1D 20
Blair et al. J Pediatr Surg 1986 1978-1985 C 25 18OA 6AAA 1 O 25BS 25B 23 21 AP 2 AP+TS 2 TS 4 TS 1 VRD 21G 4D 48
Greenholz et al. J Pediatr Surg 1986 1977-1984 C 41 5 OA 6 IA 10 AAA 17 IT 6 O 28 BS 27 AG 41B 17 19 AP 1 LTP 11 O 15 NS - 35 G 2 P 4D 21
Malone et al. Arch Dis Child 1990 1986-1988 C 17 17 IT 17B - 17 AP 4 AP+TP 4 T 7G 9W 1D RS
Clevenger et al. Ann Thorac Surg 1990 1985-1990 C 12 6 OA 10 IA 2 AAA 6 BS 12 B - 12 AP 3 VRD 3 recurrent apnoea 3 ventilator dependence 11 major complication 5 G 6 P 1 D 10.5
Dohlemann et al. J Pediatr Surg 1990 1990 D 3 1 OA 2O 2 BS 2 AG 3 B 3 3 AP - 3G -
Brawn et al. J Pediatr Surg 1991 1991 D 2 1 OA 1 PI 1 BS 2B - 2 AP 1 bleeding 1AP+TP 1G 1W 7
Yamaguchi et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1991 1978-1990 C 21 3 OA 2 AAA 14 PAA 21 B 17 3 AP 5 LTP 14 PPA 1 AP after LTP 15 G 1 W 1 D 109
Filler et al. J Pediatr Surg 1992 1977-1991 C 32 32 OA 32 B - 29 AP 2 AP + TS 1 TS 1 seroma 1 vocal chord paralysis 1 stent dislogment 1 LTP 1 lobectomy 28 G 3 W 1 D 6.5
Chun et al. Ann Thor Surg 1992 1968-1990 C 39 39 AAA 39 BS 33 AG - 10 AP 39 VRD 3 bleeding 2 respiratory arrest 5 BPN 1 PNX 1 chylotorax 1 sepsis 37 G 2 D 12.5
Corbally et al. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1993 1980-1990 C 48 48 OA 48 B - 48 AP 1 bleeding 1 TP 21 Nissen 1 phrenic nerve palsy 38 G 5 P 2 D 46
Jonas et al. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1994 1989-1993 D 12 12 IA 12 B - 12 AP 4 persistent stridor 8 G 4 G 24
Triglia et al. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1994 1987-1983 C 12 12 OA 12 IA 4 AAA 12 B 3 AG 12 12 AP 1 reimplantation of innominate artery (post-trauma) 9 G 3 W 24
Roberts et al. J Pediatr Surg 1994 1976-1992 C 30 30 AAA 28 BS 28 AG 16 B - 9 AP 17 VRD 1 AP-TP 2 TP 1 aortoesophageal fistula 26 G 4 P -
Masaoka et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1996 1996 D 5 2 OA 1 AAA 2 O 5 B - 1 AP 1 LTP 1 BR 2 NS 1 persistent TM 3 G 1 P 1 D -
Bullard et al. J Pediatr Surg 1997 1989-1994 D 6 5 OA 1 AAA - - 6 AP 1 PNX 2 hemotorax 4 G 2 P -
McCarthy et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1997 1983-1995 C 24 6 IA 9 AAA 2 PAA 5 TBS 9 BS 24 B   6 AP 9 VRD 6 LTP 3 O 1 AP 1 TBR 19 G 2 P 3 D 40
McElhinney et al. Ann Thorac Surg 1999 1993-1997 D 5 5 AAA 1 BS 2 AG 5 B - 5 AP 2 T 3 G 2 P 24
Gormley et al. J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1999 1986-1998 D 16 15 IA 1AAA 16 BS 16 B 6 AG - 11 AP 1 VRD 4 NS - 12 G 3 P 1 W- -
Kamata et al. J Pediatr Surg 2000 1992-1997 D 14 4 OA 4 IT 6 O 14 B 14 13 AP 1 PPA - 12 G 2 D 50
Morabito et al. J Pediatr Surg 2000 1978-1999 D 16 15 OA 1 IA 16 B 16 9 AP 4 TP 3 LTP 1 T 1 Nissen 15 G 1 P -
Dave et al. J Pediatr Surg 2006 1981-2004 B 28 15 OA 13 IT 28 BS 28 B 7 28 AP 1 phrenic nerve palsy 3 lung collapse 1 tymic compression 26 G 2 P 6
Vazquez et al. Ann Thorac Surg 2001 1985-2000 C 29 27 OA 1 IA 1 AAA 14 AG 29 B - 29 AP 1 phrenic nerve palsy 3 PNX 1 scoliosis 28 G 1 P 8
Weber et al. Am J Surg 2002 - C 32 18 OA 4 IA 8 AAA 2 IT 32 B 32 32 AP 2 reintubations 26 G 4 P 2 W 6
Schaarschmidt et al. J Pediatr Surg 2002 2000 D 2 1 OA 1 AAA 2B 2 2 AP - 2 G 17
Ahel et al. Pediatr Int 2003 1994-2001 D 3 1 OA 2 IT 3 B - 3 AP - 2 G -
Valerie et al. J Pediatr Surg 2005 1993-2003 B 25 17 OA 8 O 25 B - 11 AP 14 TS 1 reintubation 4 pericerdial effusion - -
Khatami et al. Thorac Cardiov Surg 2006 1995-2004 D 5 5 OA 5 B - 5 AP - - -
Van der Zee et al. Surg Endosc 2007 2002-2005 D 6 6 OA 6 B - 6 AP 2 AP 4 G 2 P -
Grillo et al. Ann Thorac Surg 2007 - D 4 4 AAA 3 AG 4 B 4 4 AP 3 VRD 1 hemotorax 2 chylotorax 1 TS 3 G 1 W 108
Abdel-Rahman et al. - World J Surg 2007 1992-2006 C 20 5 OA 2 AAA 13 IT 20 B 20 20 AP 1 AP 16 G 2 P 2 W 13
Perger et al. J Laparosc Adv Surg Techn 2009 2003-2006 D 5 4 OA 1 IT - 4 5 AP 1 T 3 G 1 P 1 W 26
Fraga et al. J Pediatr Surg 2009 1996-2008 D 4 4 AAA 4 B 4 4 AP - 3 G 1 P 110
Gardella et al. J Pediatr Surg 2010 1997-2006 B 28 28 IA 28 B 16 16 AP 12 NS - 16 G 48
Calkoen et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2011 1990-2008 B 105 44 OA 16 AAA 45 O 103 B 18 105 AP 4 AP 14 T 5 TS 76 G 24 P 84
Horvath Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1992 1979-1992 C 26 26 IA 26 B 26 BS - 26 AP - 25 G 1 P 46
Kiely et al. Ped Surg Int1987 1980-1986 C 25 22 OA 3 IT - - 25 AP 1 hemothorax 1 heart failure 4 infections 2 TP 17G 5P 3W -
Filler J Pediatr Surg 1976 1974-1975 D 3 3 OA 1 IA 3 BS 3 B - 3 AP - - -
Vinograd J Cardiovasc Surg 1994 1988-1992 C 20 - 20 B 20 19 AP 1 PPA 3 LTP 1 TS 14 G 4 P 2 W  
  1. Table legend: Literature review: period, number and sex of patients, diagnostic, type of surgery and outcome are shown. Articles were classified according to revised SIGN grading system.
  2. List of abbreviations in Table 1:
  3. AAA= Aortic Arch Anomalies.
  4. AG= Angiography.
  5. AP= Aortopexy.
  6. BG= Bronchography.
  7. B= Bronchoscopy.
  8. D= Dead.
  9. G= Good.
  10. BS= Barium Swallow.
  11. IA= Innominate Artery Compression.
  12. IT= Idiopathique Tracheomalacia.
  13. LTP= Laryngotracheoplasty.
  14. NS= Non Surgical Treatment.
  15. O= Other.
  16. OA= Oesophageal Atresia.
  17. P= Poor/No Improvement.
  18. PI= Post Intubation.
  19. PAA= Pulmonary Artery Anomalies.
  20. PPA= Pulmonary Artery Plico-Suspension.
  21. RS= Retrospective Study.
  22. T=Tracheostomy.
  23. TBR= Tracheo-Bronchial Resection.
  24. TBS= Tracheo-Bronchial Stenosis.
  25. TM= Tracheomalacia.
  26. TP= Tracheopexy.
  27. TS= Tracheal Stenting.
  28. VRD= Vascular Ring Division.
  29. W= Worsening.