Skip to main content

Table 5 Summary of congenital malformations

From: Risk factors associated with birth defects at a tertiary care center in Pakistan

  Preterm Term Post term
Male Female Male Female Male Female Male:Female ratio
N N N N N N
CNS Hydrocephalus 13 7 16 4 1 2 1:0.43
Neural Tube Defects 7 4 1 1 0 3 1:1
Congenital Schwannoma 0 0 2 0 0 0 NC
Congenital Cranipharyngioma 1 0 2 0 0 0 NC
GI Small Intestine Obstruction 1 1 0 0 0 0 1:1
Hirschprung Disease 0 0 1 0 0 1 1:1
Ectopic Anus 0 0 1 0 0 0 NC
Imperforate Anus 4 3 2 3 1 1 1:1
CVS Patent Ductus Arteriosus 6 3 1 0 0 0 1:0.43
Ventricular Septal Defect 0 2 2 0 1 0 1:0.67
Atrial Septal Defect 1 0 0 0 0 0 NC
ENT Laryngeocele 0 0 1 0 0 0 NC
Tracheoesophageal Fistula 0 0 1 0 0 0 NC
Fistula in Neck 1 0 0 0 0 0 NC
Congenital Torticollis 1 0 0 0 1 0 NC
Choanal Atresia 0 1 0 1 0 0 NC
Eye Aphakia 0 2 1 0 0 0 1:2
Retinoblastoma 36 11 22 11 0 0 1:0.38
Congenital Strabismus 2 2 2 2 0 0 1:1
Glaucoma 0 0 1 1 0 0 1:1
Cataract 4 1 1 0 0 0 1:0.2
Oral Cavity Ankyloglossia 0 0 4 4 1 2 1:1.2
Palatal Fistula 1 0 2 0 0 0 NC
Cleft Lip Alone 6 4 5 3 1 1 1:0.67
Cleft Palate Alone 1 3 1 4 1 2 1:3
Cleft Lip+Palate 7 5 6 4 1 2 1:0.79
Musculo-skeletal System Extra Digit 0 0 4 1 0 0 1:0.25
Syndactyly 0 0 1 2 2 0 1:0.67
Talipes Equinovarus 12 3 25 15 3 7 1:0.63
Ankylosed Hip Joint 1 0 0 0 0 0 NC
Urogenital System Urethral Fistula 3 0 2 1 1 0 1:0.17
Meatal Stenosis 1 0 4 0 0 0 NC
Penile Torniquet 1 0 2 0 0 0 NC
Congenital Hydrocele 5 4 19 6 7 1 1:0.35
Congenital Cryptorchidism 15 0 6 0 1 0 NC
Ambiguous Genitalia 0 1 0 0 0 0 NC
Congenital Ovarian Cyst 0 0 0 0 0 1 NC
Hypospadias 14 0 19 0 3 0 NC
Body Wall Defects Supraumbilical Hernia 0 1 0 1 0 0 NC
Umbilical Hernia 0 0 2 1 0 0 1:0.5
Umbilical Polyp 1 0 0 0 0 0 NC
Umbilical Sinus 0 0 1 0 0 0 NC
Epigastric Hernia 1 1 0 0 0 0 1:1
Inguinal Hernia 7 5 22 10 12 7 1:0.54
Multisystem Defects Anorectal+Meatal Stenosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 NC
Anoscrotal Malformation 0 0 1 0 0 0 NC
Others Labial Hemangioma 0 0 2 1 0 0 1:0.5
Lipodermoid Cyst 0 0 1 2 0 0 1:2
Congenital Epidermoid Cyst 0 0 5 1 0 0 1:0.2
Xeroderma Pigmentosum 0 0 4 3 0 0 1:0.75
Congenital Angiofibroma 0 0 2 1 0 0 1:0.5
Cystic Hygroma 0 0 2 4 0 0 1:2
Cystic Adenoid 0 0 1 1 1 0 1:0.5
Cystic Nodule 0 0 2 1 0 0 1:0.5
Congenital Dermoid Cyst 0 0 2 1 0 0 1:0.5
Bifid Nose 0 0 2 0 0 0 NC
Multiple Malformations 3 1 1 0 0 0 1:0.25