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Table 1 Morbidity and mortality of preterm infants after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and after natural conception (non-IVF)

From: The effect of IVF pregnancies on mortality and morbidity in tertiary unit

Variable IVF group n =112 Non-IVF group n =405 p-value
*Maternal age 30 (23–39) 28 (16–46) <0.001
*Gravidity 2 (1–3) 2 (1–6) <0.001
**Preeclampsia 16 (14) 81 (20) 0.2
Male/female (n) 50/62 252/153 0.2
**Intrauterine growth retardation 7 (6) 51 (13) 0.1
**Cesarean section 93 (83) 326 (80) 0.015
**Meconium-stained amniotic fluid 1 (1) 5 (1) 0.7
**Preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes 15 (13) 63 (16) 0.8
**Outborn newborn 6 (5) 42 (10) 0.1
**No prenatal maternal management 3 (3) 19 (5) 0.1
**Antenatal steroid 73 (18) 96 (24) <0.001
*Gestational age (week) 31 (23–36) 32 (22–36) <0.001
*Birth weight (g) 1770 (480–4060) 1980 (380–4200) <0.001
**Multiple birth    
Twins 57 (51) 56 (14) <0.001
Triplets 30 (27) 10 (3)  
Quadruplets - 1  
**Necessitating mechanical ventilation at admission 48 (43) 109 (27) <0.001
**Respiratory distress syndrome 48 (43) 117 (29) 0.005
**Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 16 (13) 36 (9) <0.001
**Intraventricular hemorrhage    <0.001
Grade 1 14 (13) 36 (9)  
Grade 2 7 (6) 12 (3)  
Grade 3 4 (4) 4 (1)  
Grade 4 3 (3) 3 (1)  
**Patent ductus arteriosus 19 (17) 42 (10)  
Ligation 2 1  
Ibuprofen treatment 10 14 <0.001
Indomethacin treatment 6 14  
**Necrotizing enterocolitis    
Grade 1 11 (10) 34 (9)  
Grade 2 7 (6) 21 (5) 0.001
Grade 3   2 (1)  
** Retinopathy of prematurity    
Grade 1 6 (5) 5 (1) 0.073
Grade 2 2 (2) 8 (7)  
Grade 3 2 (2) 4 (1)  
**Sepsis    
Early 28 (25) 64 (16) 0.052
Late 12 (11) 37 (9)  
*Hospitalization time 9 (0–97) 8 (0–97) 0.064
**Mortality 7 (6) 36 (9) 0.2
  1. * Results are presented as median (minimum-maximum).
  2. ** Results are presented as number and percentage, n (%).
  3. p < 0.05 is statistically significant. *Mann–Whitney U test or **chi-squared test was used.