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Table 7 Medical history to record in children and adolescents with hypertension

From: Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents

 Family history



Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

Diabetes mellitus



Hereditary renal disease (Polycystic kidney disease)

Hereditary endocrine disease (pheochromocytoma, adrenal hyperplasia, multiple endocrine neoplasia , von Hippel-Lindau)

Syndromes associated with hypertension (neurofibromatosis)

 Clinical history


Perinatal history: birth weight, gestational age, oligohydramnios, anoxia, umbilical artery catheterization

Previous history: urinary tract infection, renal or urological disease, cardiac, endocrine (including diabetes) or neurological disease, growth retardation

Symptoms suggestive of secondary hypertension: dysuria, thirst/polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, edema, weight loss, failure to thrive, palpitations, sweating, fever, pallor, flushing, cold extremities, intermittent claudication, virilization, primary amenorrhea, male pseudohermaphroditism

Symptoms suggestive of target organ damage: headache, epistaxis, vertigo, visual impairment, facial palsy, fits, strokes, dyspnea

Sleep history: snoring, apnea, daytime somnolence

Risk factor history: low physical exercise level, incorrect dietary habits, smoking, alcohol, licorice

Drug intake: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic anti-depressants, antipsychotics, decongestants, oral contraceptives, illegal drugs


  1. Lurbe et al. “Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: recommendations of the ESH”. Journal of Hypertension 2009[2] (modified).