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Table 7 Medical history to record in children and adolescents with hypertension

From: Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents

 Family history  
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
Diabetes mellitus
Hereditary renal disease (Polycystic kidney disease)
Hereditary endocrine disease (pheochromocytoma, adrenal hyperplasia, multiple endocrine neoplasia , von Hippel-Lindau)
Syndromes associated with hypertension (neurofibromatosis)
 Clinical history  
Perinatal history: birth weight, gestational age, oligohydramnios, anoxia, umbilical artery catheterization
Previous history: urinary tract infection, renal or urological disease, cardiac, endocrine (including diabetes) or neurological disease, growth retardation
Symptoms suggestive of secondary hypertension: dysuria, thirst/polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, edema, weight loss, failure to thrive, palpitations, sweating, fever, pallor, flushing, cold extremities, intermittent claudication, virilization, primary amenorrhea, male pseudohermaphroditism
Symptoms suggestive of target organ damage: headache, epistaxis, vertigo, visual impairment, facial palsy, fits, strokes, dyspnea
Sleep history: snoring, apnea, daytime somnolence
Risk factor history: low physical exercise level, incorrect dietary habits, smoking, alcohol, licorice
Drug intake: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic anti-depressants, antipsychotics, decongestants, oral contraceptives, illegal drugs
  1. Lurbe et al. “Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: recommendations of the ESH”. Journal of Hypertension 2009[2] (modified).