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Table 2 Main pharmacokinetic characteristics of antiepileptic drugs

From: Antiepileptic drugs and breastfeeding

  PB Oral T ½§ M/P
(hours)
Bioavailability
  (%) (%)   
Carbamazepine 74 100 18 – 54 0.69
Clonazepam 50 – 86 100 18 – 50 0.33
Diazepam 99 100 43 0.2 – 2.7
Ethosuximide NA 100 30 – 60 0.94
Gabapentin < 3 50 – 60 5 – 7 0.7 – 1.3
Lamotrigine 55 98 29 0.057 – 1.47 [33]
Levetiracetam < 10 100 6 – 8 0.76 – 1.55 [37, 38]
Oxcarbazepine 40 100 9 (oxcarbazepine metabolyte) 0.5
Phenobarbital 51 80 – 100 20 – 133 0.4 – 0.6
(45–500 in newborns) [41]
Phenytoin 89 70 – 100 6 – 24 0.18 – 0.45
(20–160 in preterm infants) [48]
Pregabalin NA 90 6 NA
Primidone 25 90 5 – 18 0.72
Tiagabine 96 90 7 – 9 NA
Topiramate 15 75 18 – 24 0.86 – 1.1 [55]
Valproate 94 100 14 0.42
Vigabatrin NA 50 7 < 1
Zonisamide 40 NA 63 0.93
  1. PB: maternal plasma protein binding expressed as percentage.
  2. Oral Bioavailability: intestinal absorption after oral administration expressed as percentage of the administered dose.
  3. § T ½: half-life of the drug.
  4. M/P: milk to plasma ratio of a drug concentration.
  5. Data drawn from references 1–8 except where otherwise specified. NA: indicates that no data are available.