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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of reported cases of abdominal epilepsy in pediatric population and in our patient

From: Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report

Patient number Age Sex Gastrointestinal symptoms Other non-gastrointestinal symptoms Episode duration EEG Treatment Outcome
Zdravescka N. et al. 1 14 F Colicky epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea Pallor, dizziness 10-30 minutes Spikes, sharp waves over the right central and temporal regions with secondary generalization Carbamazepine Seizure free
Franzon RC et al. 2 6 F Abdominal pain Disturbed awareness, occasional generalized tonic-clonic seizures Seconds to minutes Spikes and slow waves over left temporal area Anticonvulsants, surgical resection of oligoastrocytoma Seizure free
Garcia-Herrero D. et al. 3 14 F Colicky periumbilical pain Headache, pallor, dizziness, multicolored photopsia Second to minutes Interictal-bursts of sharp and slow waves Valproic acid Near complete resolution
Dutta SR et al. 4 15 M Epigastric abdominal pain and vomiting Lethargy 30 minute to hours Right temporal focal seizure discharge with generalization Oxcarbazepine Seizure free
Case 1
Dutta SR et al. 4 13 F Colicky periumbilical pain NR 10-30 minutes Generalized spikes and wave discharges Oxcarbazepine Seizure free
Case 2
Young GB et al. 5 15 F Abdominal pain Generalized tonic seizures NR Multiple independent spikes NR NR
Hasan N. et al. 7 8 M Colicky periumbilical pain, vomiting Pallor, an episode with jerky movements in the lower limbs 10-30 minutes Generalized paroxysmal epileptiform activity, maximum on photic stimulation Valproic acid Seizure free
Siegel AM et al. 8 1 F Crampy periumbilical pain Occasional generalized seizures Few seconds Right parietal focus NR NR
Mitchell WG et al. 9 6 M Vomiting Bad smell, fatigue 20-40 seconds Ictal and intercritic high voltage arrhythmic delta waves, sometimes sharply contoured Multiple antiseizure medication, than surgary and radiation (for astrocytoma) Decreased frequency of episodes
Douglas EF et al. 10 11 F Paroxysmal, peri-umbilical abdominal pain Lassitude, post-ictal sleep, fever, headache, confusion. “Brief” Irregular 3 Hz spike-waves activity Phenobarbital Seizure free
Case 1
Douglas EF et al. 10 5 F Crampy, paroxysmal abdominal pain Lethargy, post-ictal sleep Few minutes Episode 6–7 activity in L temporal area, burst of generalized irregularly intermixed spikes and slow waves Phenobarbital Lost to follow-up
Case 2
Douglas EF et al. 10 6 M Paroxysmal pain Lethargy, confusion, fever Few minutes Paroxysmal spike-wave activity, frontal or generalized Anticonvulsivants Seizure free
Case 3
Yingkun F 11 3 M Abdominal pain, vomiting Confusion, cyanosis, urinary incontinence, blindness Few minutes Scattered high voltage slow activity and high voltage sharp waves Phenytoin, phenobarbital Seizure free
Case 1
Yingkun F 11 16 M Upper abdominal pain, nausea Disturbance of consciousness 3-5 minutes High voltage slow waves; high voltage sharp waves with hyperventilation Phenobarbital Seizure free
Case 2
Yingkun F et al. 11 11 F Periumbilical abdominal pain Disturbance/loss of consciousness Minutes to hour Bilateral high voltage spikes, complexed slow waves Phenytoin, phenobarbital Seizure free
Case 3
Singhi PD et al. 12 10 M Periumbilical pain Pallor, sweates, lethargy, post-ictal sleep Few minutes Sharp spikes, spikes and wave activity arising over the central region and becoming generalized Phenytoin Complete resolution
Agrawal P. et al. 13 6 M Colicky periumbilical pain Lassitude, post-ictal sleep Half an hour Generalized slowing, right posterior spikes Carbamazepine Seizure free
Our patient 8 M Colicky epigastric pain, nausea Pallor Few minutes to 1 hour Bilateral synchronous and asynchronous spikes and diphasic sharp-waves in temporal and central area, increased during drowsiness and sleep Carbamazepine Seizure free