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Table 2 Duration of sun exposure, eating habits, vitamin D supplement during breast feeding and place of residence in the asthmatic and control group children

From: Childhood asthma and vitamin D deficiency in Turkey: is there cause and effect relationship between them?

  Groups (n = 170)
  Asthma group (n = 85) Control group (n = 85)
Characteristics <20 ng/ml n (%) 20-29 ng/ml n (%) ≥30 ng/ml n (%) <20 ng/ml n (%) 20-29 ng/ml n (%) ≥30 ng/ml n (%)
Duration of sun exposure   Groups (n = 170)
0-15 min 20 (76.9) 2 (7.7) 4 (15.4) 1 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (50.0)
16-30 min 23 (71.9) 7 (21.9) 2 (6.2) 7 (46.7) 1 (6.7) 7 (46.7)
31-60 min 8 (42.1) 9 (47.4) 2 (10.5) 14 (31.1) 17 (37.8) 14 (31.1))
61 min and + 6 (75.0) 2 (25.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (34.8) 7 (30.4) 8 (34.8)
p 0.07 0.001
Eating habits   
D vitamin insufficient 30 (76.9) 5 (12.8) 4 (10.3) 13 (61.9) 4 (19.0) 4 (19.0)
D vitamin sufficient 27 (58.7) 15 (32.6) 4 (8.7) 17 (26.6) 21 (32.8) 26 (40.6)
p 0.04 0.013
Vitamin D supplement   
No intake 44 (73.3) 15 (32.6) 4 (8.7) 24 (32.0) 23 (30.7) 28 (37.3)
Intake 13 (52.0) 12 (20.0) 4 (6.7) 6 (60.0) 2 (20.0) 2 (20.0)
p 0.141 0.302
Place of residence   
Urban 41 (70.7) 11 (19.0) 6 (10.3) 19 (30.6) 18 (29.0) 25 (40.3)
Rural 16 (59.3) 9 (13.3) 2 (7.4) 11 (47.8) 7 (30.4) 2 (21.7)
p   0.342    0.245