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Table 2 Serum 25-OH-D levels and vitamin D status related to presumed risk factors for hypovitaminosis D

From: Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and predictors of vitamin D status in Italian healthy adolescents

  n/total (%) 25-OH-D, nmol/L p n/total (%) with vitamin D deficiency n/total (%) with vitamin D insufficiency n/total (%) with vitamin D sufficiency p
Median (range)
Gender        
Male 213/427 (50.0) 48.3 (10.0; 174.7) 0.438 111/213 (52.1) 62/213 (29.1) 40/213 (18.8) 0.366
Female 214/427 (50.0) 50.4 (8.1; 174.3)   102/214 (47.7) 76/214 (35.5) 36/214 (16.8)  
Residence        
Urban 238/427 (55.7) 48.0 (10.8; 174.7) 0.481 124/238 (52.1) 73/238 (30.7) 41/238 (17.2) 0.583
Rural 189/427 (44.3) 50.7 (8.1; 144.8)   89/189 (47.1) 65/189 (34.4) 35/189 (18.5)  
Season of blood withdrawal        
Winter (Jan – Mar) 138/427 (32.3) 41.8 (8.1; 100.9) <0.0001 84/138 (60.9) 38/138 (27.5) 16/138 (11.6) <0.0001
Spring (Apr – Jun) 110/427 (25.8) 47.6 (12.1; 122.3)   63/110 (57.3) 36/110 (32.7) 11/110 (10.0)  
Summer (Jul – Sep) 62/427 (14.5) 63.7 (10.8; 174.3)   21/62 (33.9) 19/62 (30.6) 22/62 (35.5)  
Fall (Oct – Dec) 117/427 (27.4) 55.7 (12.0; 174.7)   45/117 (38.5) 45/117 (38.5) 28/117 (23.0)  
Ethnicity        
White 410/427 (96.0) 50.6 (10.0; 174.7) <0.0001 198/410 (48.3) 137/410 (33.4) 75/410 (18.3) 0.005
Non-white 17/427 (4.0) 28.2 (8.1; 86.2)   15/17 (88.2) 1/17 (5.9) 1/17 (5.9)  
Weight status        
Normal 205/366 (56.0) 51.7 (13.5; 174.7) 0.032 95/205 (46.3) 60/205 (29.3) 50/205 (24.4) 0.011
Overweight 78/366 (21.3) 48.7 (10.0; 107.9)   42/78 (53.8) 28/78 (35.9) 8/78 (10.3)  
Obese 83/366 (22.7) 46.0 (10.8; 94.6)   48/83 (57.8) 27/83 (32.5) 8/83 (9.6)  
Sun exposure        
Low 50/277 (18.1) 34.6 (10.0; 97.7) <0.0001 39/50 (78.0) 9/50 (18.0) 2/50 (4.0) <0.0001
Moderate 77/277 (27.8) 52.4 (13.5; 174.7)   34/77 (44.2) 29/77 (37.7) 14/77 (18.1)  
Good 150/277 (54.1) 54.3 (18.1; 144.8)   63/150 (42.0) 47/150 (31.3) 40/150 (26.7)  
Use of sunscreens        
Regular 92/277 (33.2) 45.7 (10.0; 97.7) <0.0001 58/92 (63.0) 29/92 (31.5) 5/92 (5.5) <0.0001
Non regular 185/277 (66.8) 54.6 (18.1; 174.7)   78/185 (42.2) 56/185 (30.3) 51/185 (27.5)  
Outdoor physical exercise        
< 3 hours/weeks 173/277 (62.5) 47.7 (12.0; 174.3) <0.0001 96/173 (55.5) 52/173 (30.1) 25/173 (14.4) 0.001
≥ 3 hours/weeks 104/277 (37.5) 59.5 (10.0; 174.7)   38/104 (36.5) 32/104 (30.8) 34/104 (32.7)  
History of fractures        
Positive 62/277 (22.4) 50.1 (13.5; 95.6) 0.376 30/62 (48.4) 23/62 (37.1) 9/62 (14.5) 0.231
Negative 215/277 (77.6) 50.2 (10.0; 174.7)   104/205 (48.4) 61/215 (28.4) 50/215 (23.2)