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Table 3 Logistic regression for presumed risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (25-OH-D < 50 nmol/L) and hypovitaminosis D (25-OH-D < 75 nmol/L)

From: Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and predictors of vitamin D status in Italian healthy adolescents

  Vitamin D deficiency Hypovitaminosis D
  B (SE) OR C.I. 95% p B (SE) OR C.I. 95% p
Gender -0.52 (0.28) 0.60 0.34-1.03 0.063 -0.43 (0.37) 0.65 0.31-1.36 0.251
(female vs male)
Residence 0.01 (0.28) 1.01 0.58-1.76 0.975 0.27 (0.37) 1.30 0.63-2.70 0.477
(urban vs rural)
Season of blood withdrawal 1.19 (0.30) 3.31 1.82-6.01 <0.0001 1.73 (0.40) 5.64 2.59-12.27 <0.0001
(winter-spring vs summer-fall)
BMI 0.41 (0.29) 1.50 0.84-2.67 0.167 1.36 (0.48) 3.89 1.54-9.88 0.004
(normal vs overweight-obese)
Sun exposure 1.57 (0.41) 4.78 2.15-10.63 <0.0001 1.78 (0.79) 5.94 1.25-28.17 0.025
(low vs moderate-good)
Use of sunscreens 0.63 (0.31) 1.87 1.02-3.41 0.042 1.77 (0.54) 5.89 2.05-16.94 0.001
(regular vs non regular)
Outdoor physical exercise 0.34 (0.30) 1.40 0.78-2.52 0.261 0.25 (0.38) 1.28 0.60-2.71 0.522
(< 3 vs ≥ 3 hours/week)
History of fractures -0.25 (0.33) 0.78 0.41-1.49 0.448 0.38 (0.49) 1.46 0.56-3.81 0.445
(positive vs negative)
  χ 2 = 49.62, p < 0.0001; Cox R2 = 0.173; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.231; χ 2 = 62.33, p < 0.0001; Cox R2 = 0.212; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.341;
Hosmer and Lemeshow test p = 0.482 Hosmer and Lemeshow test p = 0.564
  1. C.I.: Coefficient Interval.