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Table 1 Metabolomic studies that have analyzed the metabolic profiles of septic patients and of experimental animals (From ref. 6, mod.)

From: Metabolomics in the diagnosis of sepsis

Author Population study Sample Metabolomic analysis Metabolite alterations
Fanos et al. 2014 9 septic newborns vs 16 control newborns Urine GC-MS
1H NMR
Lactate, glucose, maltose, ribitol, ribonic acid, pseudo-uridine, 2,3,4 trihydroxybutiric acid, 2-ketpgluconic acid, 3,4 hydroxybutanoic acid, 3,4,5 trihydroxypentanoic acid <(GC-MS)
Acetate, acetone, citrate, creatinine, glycine, lactate, lysine, glucose (1H-NMR)
Mickiewicz et al. 2013 60 septic shock vs 40 SIRS vs 40 control pediatric patients Serum 1H-NMR 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, glucose, 2-oxoisocaproate, creatine, creatinine, histidine, and phenylalanine
Schmerler et al. 2012 74 SIRS vs 69 septic vs 16 control human adults Blood LC-MS/MS Acylcarnitines and glycerophosphatidylcholines
Mickiewitz et al. 2014 39 septic shock adult patients vs 20 ICU control patients Serum 1H-NMR Isobutyrate, phenylalanine, 2 hydroxyisovalerate, myoinositol, acetylcarnitine, creatine, lactate, valine, arginine, methanol, glucose, glycine
Liu et al. 2010 40 septic vs control rats Plasma UPLC–Q-TOF-MS Hypoxanthine, indoxyl sulfate, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid, proline, uracil, nitrotyrosine, uric acid and trihydroxy cholanoic acid
Lin et al. 2009 40 septic vs 20 control rats Serum 1H NMR Lactate, alanine, acetate, acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate and formate
Izquierdo-Garcìa et al. 2011 14 septic vs 14 control rats Lung tissue, BALF and serum 1H NMR Alanine, creatine, phosphoethanolamine and myoinositol