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Table 5 Represents fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan 2013

From: “Risk factors of birth asphyxia”

Serial no Category   Cases N = 123 Control N = 117 CI/95% P-value OR
1 Were any fetal conditions (given below) suspected/diagnosed during pregnancy       
  a) Multiple births Yes 1 (0.8%) 8 (6.2%) 0.01-0.90 0.01 0.11
No 122 (99.2%) 109 (93.2%)    
  b) Polyhydramnios Yes 0 2 (1.7%) 0.99-1.04 0.14 1.01
No 123 115 (98.3%)    
  c) Oligohydramnios Yes 9 (7.3%) 0 0.88-0.97 <0.01 0.92
No 114 (92.7%) 117    
  d) Meconium-stained amniotic fluid Yes 24 (19.5%) 0 0.73-0.87 <0.01 0.80
No 99 (80.5%) 117    
  e) Abnormal heart rate or rhythm Yes 1 (0.8%) 0 0.97-1.00 0.32 0.99
No 122 (99.2%) 117    
  f) Acidosis (fetal scalp capillary blood) Yes 4 (3.3%) 0 0.93-0.99 0.96 0.04
No 119 (97.6%) 117    
  g) Decreased rate of growth (uterine size) Yes 3 (2.43%) 0 0.94-1.00 0.08 0.97
No 120 (97.5%) 117    
  h) Premature delivery Yes 23 (18.7%) 1 (0.9%) 3.54- <0.01 26.68
No 100 (81.3%) 116 (99.1%) 201.10   
  i) Amniotic fluid surfactant test negative or intermediate within 24 hours of delivery Yes 9 (7.37%) 0 0.88-0.97 <0.01 0.92
No 114 (92.6%) 117    
  j) Ultrasound guided gross abnormality Yes 0 1 (0.9%) 0.99-1.02 0.30 1.00
No 123 116 (99.1%)    
  k) Abnormal striol level Yes 2 (1.62%) 0 0.96-1.00 0.16 0.98
No 121 (98.38%) 117    
  L) None Yes 75 (61.0%) 100 (85.5%) 0.14-0.49 <0.01 0.26
No 48 (39.0%) 17 (14.5%)    
  1. Threshold of significance is <0.05.
  2. All significant values were in bold letters.