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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristic of the enrolled newborns and of their parents: prenatal conditions

From: Risk factors for bronchiolitis hospitalization during the first year of life in a multicenter Italian birth cohort

  wGA groups
  33+0d-34+6d (No. 737) 35+0d-37+6d (No. 767) ≥38+0d (No. 706) Total (No. 2210)
Pregnancy     
Assisted reproductive technique 154 (20.9) 90 (11.7) 7 (1.0) 251 (11.4)
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) 82 (11.1) 58 (7.6) 7 (1.0) 147 (6.7)
Mother’s characteristics     
Age >40 year 95 (12.9) 91 (11.9) 46 (6.5) 232 (10.5)
Low education 185 (25.1) 184 (24) 131 (18.6) 500 (22.6)
Nationality     
  Italian 654 (88.7) 703 (91.7) 655 (92.8) 2012 (91.0)
  African 12 (1.6) 9 (1.2) 8 (1.1) 29 (1.3)
  Asian 10 (1.4) 2 (0.3) 6 (0.8) 18 (0.8)
  Eastern Europe 36 (4.9) 37 (4.8) 22 (3.1) 95 (4.3)
  Western Europe 13 (1.8) 4 (0.5) 7 (1.0) 24 (1.1)
Southern America 12 (1.6) 12 (1.6) 8 (1.1) 32 (1.4)
Maternal diseases during pregnancy 275 (37.3) 220 (28.7) 92 (13.0) 587 (26.6)
Treatment with corticosteroids 404 (54.8) 157 (20.5) 4 (0.6) 565 (25.6)
History of respiratory diseases 138 (18.7) 134 (17.5) 132 (18.7) 404 (18.3)
  Asthma 49 (6.6) 50 (6.5) 47 (6.7) 146 (6.6)
  COPD 12 (1.6) 8 (1.0) 6 (0.8) 26 (1.2)
  Eczema 33 (4.5) 28 (3.7) 26 (3.7) 87 (3.9)
  Rhinitis 78 (10.6) 82 (10.7) 90 (12.7) 250 (11.3)
  Wheezing 1 (0.1) - 1 (0.1) 2 (0.1)
Prenatal smoke exposure     
  None 559 (75.8) 560 (73.0) 525 (74.4) 1644 (74.4)
  To maternal active smoking only 76 (10.3) 93 (12.1) 61 (8.6) 230 (10.4)
  To maternal passive smoking only 102 (13.8) 114 (14.9) 120 (17.0) 336 (15.2)
Father’s characteristics     
Age >40 year 184 (25.0) 203 (26.5) 158 (22.4) 545 (24.7)
Low education 219 (29.7) 261 (34.0) 198 (28.0) 678 (30.7)
History of respiratory diseases 138 (18.7) 158 (20.6) 141 (20.0) 437 (19.8)
  Asthma 51 (6.9) 48 (6.3) 48 (6.8) 147 (6.7)
  COPD 8 (1.1) 14 (1.8) 8 (1.1) 30 (1.4)
  Eczema 15 (2.0) 12 (1.6) 15 (2.1) 42 (1.9)
  Rhinitis 100 (13.6) 133 (17.3) 117 (16.6) 350 (15.8)
  1. All data are reported as No. (%).wGA = weeks of gestational age; yrs = years