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Table 4 Evaluation of the quality of the studies included in the meta-analysis according to the risk of bias tool as proposed by the Cochrane collaboration and evaluation of the level of evidence according to the GRADE approach

From: Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding Incomplete outcome data Selective outome reporting Other sources of bias Levels of quality of evidence in the grade approach
Al-Hosni, 2012 [33] UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW
Bin-Nun, 2005 [40] UNCLEAR UNCLEAR HIGH UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR VERYLOW
Braga, 2011 [35] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Costalos, 2003 [49] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Dani, 2002 [42] UNCLEAR LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Demirel, 2013 [28] LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Dilli, 2015 [44] LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Fernández-Carrocera, 2013 [32] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Jacobs, 2013 [26] LOW UNCLEAR LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW
Kitajima, 1997 [52] LOW UNCLEAR LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW MODERATE
Lin, 2005 [41] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Lin, 2008 [37] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Manzoni, 2006 [37] LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW MODERATE
Mihatsch, 2010 [43] LOW UNCLEAR LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW MODERATE
Mohan, 2006 [53] UNCLEAR LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW
Oncel, 2013 [25] LOW UNCLEAR LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Patole, 2014 [45] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Rojas, 2012 [30] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR LOW HIGH
Rougé, 2009 [50] LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR HIGH LOW
Roy, 2014 [58] LOW UNCLEAR LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Saengtawesin, 2014 [48] HIGH HIGH HIGH UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW
Samanta, 2009 LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Sari, 2011 [34] LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE
Serce, 2013 [27] LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW MODERATE
Stratiki, 2007 [39] UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR LOW LOW
Totsu, 2014 [46] LOW LOW LOW LOW UNCLEAR UNCLEAR MODERATE