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Table 5 Evaluation of the included studies according to their microbiological quality

From: Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Probiotic strain Strain identification Microbiological assessment Microbiological flaw
Al-Hosni, 2012 [33] Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG LGG identified at the strain level No assessment Moderate
Bifidobacterium infantis B. infantis identified via the web site of the producer: Bifantis (Bifidobacterium infantis 35624)
Bin-Nun, 2005 [40] Bifidobacterium infantis Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Streptococcus thermophilus
Bifidobacterium bifidus
Braga, 2011 [35] Lactobacillus casei Strains non identified clearly No assessment Severe
Bifidobacterium breve
Costalos, 2003 [49] Saccharomyces boulardii Strain not identified at the strain level S. boulardii not characterized in stools. Severe
Gut flora assessed by plate count
Dani, 2002 [42] Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Demirel, 2013 [28] Saccharomyces boulardii Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Dilli, 2015 [44] B. lactis Strain non identified at the strain level but probably Bb12 No assessment Moderate
Fernández-Carrocera, 2013 [32] Lactobacillus acidophilus Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Lactobacillus casei
Lactobacillus plantarum
Bifidobacterium infantis
Streptococcus thermophilus
Jacobs, 2013 [26] Bifidobacterium infantis Strains identified at the strain level No assessment Moderate
Streptococcus thermophilus Bifidobacterium lactis
Kitajima, 1997 [52] Bifidobacterium breve Strain identified Assessment by a strain-specific monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold particle Minor
Lin, 2005 [41] Lactobacillus acidophilus Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Bifidobacterium infantis
Lin, 2008 [37] Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Bifidobacterium bifidum
Manzoni, 2006 [51] Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Mihatsch, 2010 [43] Bifidobacterium lactis Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Mohan, 2006 [53] Bifidobacterium lactis Strain identified Species-specific (not strain-specific) assessment Minor
Oncel, 2013 [25] Lactobacillus reuteri Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Patole, 2014 [45] Bifidobacterium breve Strain identified Microbiological assessment by PCR Minor
Rojas, 2012 [30] Lactobacillus reuteri Strain identified No assessment Moderate
Rougé, 2009 [50] Bifidobacterium longum Strain identified Microbiological assessment by PCR Minor
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
Roy, 2014 [58] Lactobacillus acidophilus, B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. lactis Strains not identified at the strain level/identification of the commercial product No assessment Moderate
Saengtawesin, 2014 [48] Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum Strains not identified at the strain level/identification of the commercial product No assessment Moderate
Samanta, 2009 Bifidobacterium infantis Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Bifidobacterium bifidum
Bifidobacterium longum
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Sari, 2011 [34] Lactobacillus sporogenes Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Serce, 2013 [27] Saccharomyces boulardii Strains not identified at the strain level No assessment Severe
Stratiki, 2007 [39] Bifidobacterium lactis Strain identified Assessment by plate count, no strain-specific assessment Minor
Totsu, 2014 [46] Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain identified No assessment Moderate