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Table 3 Characteristics of 8 observational studies with dose-response data on maternal alcohol consumption and risk of CHDs

From: Association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risks of congenital heart defects in offspring: meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies

First author, year Region Period Study design No. of cases/controlsa period Average dose (grams/d)b OR/RR 95 % CI Adjustment variablesc Outcome
Carmichael, 2003 USA 1987–1988 CC 207/481 1 month before to 3rd month gestation 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 B, D, F, K, I Conotruncal defects
0.9 1.20 0.80–1.70
3 1.60 0.80–3.00
Ewing, 1997 USA 1981–1989 CC 641/3549 During pregnancy 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 No VSD
18 0.92 0.73–1.15
48 0.91 0.71–1.78
90 1.25 0.85–1.83
Fixler, 1998 USA   CC 89/82 3 months before to 3rd month gestation 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 No CHD
18 1.36 0.57–3.25
42 1.20 0.48–3.02
69 1.11 0.42–2.96
Larsen, 2011 Denmark 1996–2002 Cohort 477/ 86783 During pregnancy 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 A, E, F, H, P VSD
1.7 1.22 0.90–1.66
3.4 1.38 0.83–2.28
5.1 1.11 0.54–2.23
0 1.00 1.00–1.00 ASD
1.7 1.03 0.73–1.47
3.4 0.45 0.18–1.11
5.1 0.66 0.27–1.62
Martinez-Frias, 2004 Spain   CC 4705/4329 During pregnancy 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 No CHD
15 1.01 0.76–1.34
24 1.66 0.35–8.73
32 0.82 0.59–1.15
72 1.99 0.32–15.60
116 11.93 1.62–246.00
McDonald, 1992 Canada 1982–1984 Cohort 318/87389 First trimester 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 A, B, D, F, G CHD
2.9 0.91 0.70–1.20
8.7 0.96 0.60–1.50
17.9 1.24 0.70–2.20
Williams, 2004 USA 1968–1980 CC 122/3029 3 months before to 3rd month gestation 0 1.00 1.00–1.00 No VSD
4.3 0.95 0.65–1.39
12 1.22 0.43–3.45
22 3.13 1.19–8.22
  1. CC case-control study, CHDs congenital heart defects, VSD Ventriculap Septal Defect, ASD Atrial Septal Defect, TOF Tetralogy of Fallot, TGA D-Transposition of the Great Arteries, HLHS Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, COA Coarctation of the Aorta, AVSD Atrioventricular Septal Defect
  2. aReported number of cases and control subjects with available exposure information
  3. bConverted into pure ethanol in grams from the original data
  4. cAdjustment variables: A maternal age, B maternal race/ethnicity, C marital status, D maternal education, E parity, F smoking, G coffee consumption, H infant’s year/month of birth, I intake of multivitamin, J stress, K folic acid intake/dietary folate, L infant gender, M maternal body mass index, N family history of congenital heart defects, O maternal residence, P maternal occupation, Q insurance, R cases and controls matched on birth hospital/geographic region, birth month/age, race, or sex