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Table 1 Table of included studies

From: Diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells in paediatric sepsis: a systematic review

Study Number of patients Gestational Age (Mean + range) Sex male % Study Design Prevalence of infection (%) Biomarkers Cut-off Sens % (95%CI) Spec % (95%CI)
Studies in newborns
Sarafidis et al. 2010 [17] 52 Infected
35 (24–40) weeks
Infected
57,1%
Prospective 60% sTREM-1
(ELISA, Quantikine)
143 pg/ml 70 (51-85) 71 (47-88)
31 infected
22 confirmed sepsis
9 possible sepsis
IL-6 66 pg/ml 80 (61-92) 81 (58-94)
Non-infected
30 (24–39) weeks
Non-infected
61.2%
21 non infected sTREM-1/IL-6 144/66 90 (73-98) 62 (38-82)
Schlapbach et al. 2013 [18] 137 Infected
39.9 (34.0–41.6)
Infected
55%
Prospective 24%
Infected
sTREM-1 (ELISA in-house) 1.25 pg/ml 75 52
CRP 20 mg/L 36 89
PCT 2 ng/ml 88 51
MIF 50 ng/ml 84 62
PSP 9 ng/ml 79 30
Non-infected
38.9 (34.0–42.0)
Non-infected
65%
3 proven infection PSP+PCT   100 28
>/=1
30 probable infections 68 90
2
104 uninfected PSP+PCT+sTREM   
>/= 1 100 22
>/= 2 91 51
3 55 93
  PSP+PCT+sTREM 100 22
+CRP
>/= 1
>/= 2 91 49
>/= 3 59 86
4 32 97
Mazzucchelli et al. 2013 [19] 16 patients who developed sepsis among 70 observed patients Infected
27.5 ± 2.7 weeks
Infected
56.25%
Prospective 22.85% TREM-1 expression on PMNs by flow cytometer analysis Absolute levels not significant 56.2% 93.7%
    16 patients with culture proven sepsis   % of expression of TREM on PMN was evaluated 62.12%   
16 controls chosen among the same 70 observed patients Controls
26.9 ± 1.0 weeks
Controls
43.75%
16 patient free of infection matched for sex and age CD64 2.85 87.5% 100%
Adly et al. 2014 [20] 112 septic patients Culture proven
35+/-3 weeks
Culture proven
53.9%
Prospective 100% (by study definition) sTREM1 (ELISA, Quantikine) 310 pg/mL 100 100
40 controls Culture negative
35.9+/-2,7 weeks
Culture negative
51%
56.3% culture proven 1100 pg/mL (for the prediction of survival) 100 97
  Controls
35.4+/-2 weeks
Controls 55% 43.7% culture negative CRP 13.5 mg/L 76 72
Studies in children
Chen et al. 2008 [21] 44 Infants with SBI
51.8+/-31.2 day/old
Infants with SBI
69.56%
Prospective 52.27% sTREM-1 (ELISA, Quantikine) 24.4 pg/ml 87 (78-97) 81 (69-93)
   4.55% bacteraemia
Infants without SBI
30.3 +/-30.1 day/old
Infants with SBI
66.6%
4.55% pneumonia
   4.55% meningitis
38.6% Urinary Tract Infections
Kevan et al. 2011 [22] 24 IF patients 18 months
(3 -58 months)
66.6% Case control - sTREM-1 (ELISA, Quantikine) - - -
Repeated samples (n 65):
- IF: 22
- febrile IF without BSI: 10
- IF + BSI: 17
- IF post-tratment:16
LBP - - -
-Control group: 11
Carrol et al. 2009 [23] 377 patients: 2.3 years,
(0.8 -6.1 years)
57% Prospective 74% CRP 10 mg/l 100 13
95 Pneumonia PCT 0.5 ng/ml 98 27
282 Meningitidis sTREM-1 (ELISA, Quantikine) 25 pg/ml 87 15
190 HIV+ sCD163 5000 ng/ml 66 38
13 malaria HMGB1 5 ng/ml 75 40
Studies in neutropenic children
Arzanian et al. 2011 [24] 65 66.2±37 months 53.8% Prospective 20% sTREM-1 (ELISA) 525 pg/ml 84.62% 98.08%
Miedema et al. 2011 [25] 29 patients Bacterial infection
8 years (6-13)
Bacterial infection 36% Prospective 32.56% sTREM-1 (ELISA, in-house) - - -
CRP 40 mg/l t0=69 t0=62
t24-48 h= 100 t24-48 h= 42
43 episodes febrile neutropenia No bacterial
infection 8 years (6-12)
No bacterial
infection 59%
IL-8 60 ng/l t0=92 t0=54
PCT 0.25 ng/ml t24-48 h= 100 t24-48 h= 57
t0=79 t0=77
t24-48 h= 100 t24-48 h= 53
  1. AUC Area under curve; BSI bloodstream infections; CI Confidence interval; CRP C-reactive protein; HMGB1 High-mobility group box 1; IF Intestinal failure; IL-8 Interleukin 8; LBP Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein; PSP Pancreatic stone protein; SBI Serious bacterial infection; sTREM-1 Serum soluble triggering receptor on myeloid cells-1