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Table 2 Factors associated with wasting and stunting in children with sickle cell anaemia

From: Wasting and stunting are still prevalent in children with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

Characteristics Wasting Stunting
Wasted/severely wasted, n = 53 Normal weight n = 180 P value Stunted/Severely stunted, n = 27 Normal Height n = 206 P value
Nutritional status       
Weight, mean (SD), kg 28.5 (8.9) 25.0 (10.5) 0.03 24.9 (9.4) 25.9 (10.4) 0.632
Height, mean (SD), m 1.41 (0.17) 1.24 (0.21) <0.01 1.27 (0.25) 1.28 (0.20) 0.752
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 13.89 (1.41) 15.50 (2.09) <0.001 15.00 (1.71) 15.15 (2.11) 0.700
Weight for age z scorea, mean (SD) −1.98 (0.87) −0.51 (1.04) <0.001 −2.04 (1.10) −0.58 (1.06) <0.001
Height for age z score, mean (SD) −1.31 (1.23) −0.38 (1.28) <0.001 −2.79 (0.68) −0.30 (1.10) <0.001
BMI for age z score, mean (SD) −2.82 (0.65) −0.63 (0.98) <0.001 −1.86 (1.61) −1.03 (1.22) 0.002
Demographics       
Age, mean (SD), year 12.2 (3.7) 8.1 (3.6) <0.001 11.2 (5.0) 8.7 (3.8) 0.002
Adolescent, n (%) 38 (71.7) 60 (33.3) <0.001 18 (66.7) 80 (38.8) 0.006
Age at diagnosis of SCA, median(range) year 2.00 (0-14.0) 1.8 (0-12.0) 0.046 2.0 (0.0-12.0) 2.0 (0.0-14.0) 0.310
Male, n (%) 40 (75.5) 102 (56.7) 0.014 16 (59.3) 126 (61.2) 0.849
Low socioeconomic status, n (%) 31 (58.5) 61 (33.9) 0.001 13 (48.1) 79 (38.3) 0.327
SCA-related features       
≥1 SCA-related complicationb, n (%) 15 (28.3) 39 (21.7) 0.314 6 (22.2) 48 (23.3) 0.901
Severe bone pain, previous year, n (%) 12 (22.6) 42 (23.2) 0.916 5 (18.5) 49 (23.8) 0.542
Hospitalisations, previous year, n (%) 16 (30.2) 62 (34.4) 0.564 8 (29.6) 70 (34.0) 0.652
Blood transfusion, ever, n (%) 33 (62.3) 85 (47.2) 0.054 15 (55.6) 103 (50.0) 0.587
Haemoglobin level, mean (SD), g/dL 8.3 (1.6) 8.4 (1.1) 0.927 8.4 (2.1) 8.4 (1.1) 0.764
Foetal haemoglobin level, (range), % 6.4 (1.4-19.1) 8.5 (1.0-28.6) 0.035 5.7 (1.3-15.8) 8.2 (1.0-28.6) 0.014
Total white cell count, x103/ml 12.9 (4.2) 13.8 (4.7) 0.212 15.2 (6.5) 13.4 (4.3) 0.051
SCA-related interventions       
Daily oral penicillin intake, n (%) 4 (7.5) 48 (26.7) 0.003 3 (11.1) 49 (23.8) 0.137
Hydroxyurea or chronic transfusion, n (%) 9 (17.0) 50 (27.8) 0.112 3 (11.1) 56 (27.2) 0.071
  1. aweight for age z score presented for 135 children younger than 10 years bany of leg ulcer, acute chest syndrome, stroke, avascular necrosis of the hip, priapism or kidney disease