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Table 10 Sporting activities with mainly pressure-related cardiocirculatory involvement, characterized by increased-to-maximal heart rate, mean-to-increased peripheral resistances and a non-maximal cardiac output

From: Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors

Mountaineering, Climbing
Athletics: speed, jumps, leaps, heptathlon, decathlon
Bobsledding, Luge
Weight lifting, Bodybuidling
Speed cycling, Mountain bike downhill, BMX
Artistic gymnastics
Synchronized swimming
Motorcycling (Motocross, Enduro, Trial)
Water skiing
Skiing: slalom, giant slalom, super G, downhill, alpine, snowboard, carving, grass skiing.
  1. N.B. The following activities can be carried out occasionally and in a recreative manner also by hypertensive children or adolescents. However, it is advisable that the Pediatrician does not stimulate them to practice these sports permanently; moreover, the children would not obtain the medical certificate required for these activities to be performed as competitive sports
  2. Comitato Organizzativo Cardiologico per l’Idoneità allo Sport ANCE, ANMCO, FMSI, SIC, SIC SPORT [113]