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Table 3 Prevalence and association of preconception folic acid supplement according to reported maternal characteristics

From: Prevalence and determinants of preconception folic acid use: an Italian multicenter survey

Characteristic No. of women No. of supplement usersa Crudeb Adjustedc
Prevalence ratio 95 % confidence interval Prevalence ratio 95 % confidence interval
N n %     
Maternal age (years)        
  <25d 130 7 5.4 0.23 0.07, 0.80 0.31 0.12, 0.80
  25–29 404 76 18.8 0.78 0.60, 1.01 0.94 0.79, 1.11
  30–34 724 177 24.4 1   1  
  35–39 660 185 28.0 1.13 1.03, 1.23 1.05 0.96, 1.15
  40 or more 209 62 29.7 1.18 1.03, 1.36 0.98 0.85, 1.14
Parity        
  0d 1,246 335 26.9 1   1  
  1 730 148 20.3 0.74 0.63, 0.86 0.86 0.77, 0.95
  2 171 29 17.0 0.65 0.56, 0.76 0.82 0.57, 1.18
  3 or more 42 3 7.1 0.24 0.08, 0.72 0.66 0.29, 1.51
Educational level        
  Primary schoold 331 31 9.4 1   1  
  Secondary school 960 206 21.5 1.99 1.73, 2.29 1.69 1.46, 1.95
  University 890 277 31.1 2.80 2.41, 3.26 1.90 1.62, 2.22
Marital status        
  No partnerd 213 26 12.2 1   1  
  Married/cohabiting 1,957 485 24.8 2.26 1.86, 2.75 1.44 1.21, 1.72
Citizenship        
  Non-Italiand 319 45 14.1 1    
  Italian 1,867 470 25.2 2.32 1.21, 4.42 1.40 0.99, 1.97
Working activity        
  Studyingd 106 19 17.9 1   1  
  Working 1,683 422 25.1 1.47 0.89, 2.42 1.00 0.73, 1.36
  Working at home 283 49 17.3 1.15 0.68, 1.96 1.10 0.77, 1.58
  Not working 94 23 24.5 1.49 0.73, 3.06 1.31 0.88, 1.97
Pregnancy intention        
  Unintendedd 121 8 6.6 1   1  
  Mistimed 646 54 8.4 1.34 0.79, 2.28 1.02 0.61, 1.70
  Intended 1,392 448 32.2 4.87 2.51, 9.43 2.40 1.14, 5.05
Preconception health visit        
  Nod 1,266 127 10.0 1   1  
  Yes 907 388 42.8 4.21 3.09, 5.72 2.90 2.21, 3.82
Infertility treatment        
  Nod 2,001 418 20.9 1   1  
  Ovulation inductor use, no ART 31 15 48.4 2.11 1.35, 3.29 1.00 0.62, 1.60
  ART 128 74 57.8 2.75 2.08, 3.64 1.35 1.08, 1.68
Maternal smoking before pregnancy        
  Nod 1,614 413 25.6 1   1  
  Yes 575 102 17.7 0.70 0.59, 0.82 0.92 0.79, 1.07
BMI before pregnancy        
  Underweightd 180 42 23.3 1   1  
  Normal weight 1,573 389 24.7 1.11 0.89, 1.38 0.97 0.75, 1.25
  Pre-obese 303 64 21.1 1.01 0.81, 1.27 0.97 0.75, 1.26
  Obese 122 19 15.6 0.77 0.53, 1.11 0.84 0.54, 1.31
Chronic disease        
  Nod 1,959 436 22.3 1   1  
  Yes 208 71 34.1 1.47 1.17, 1.85 1.22 1.09, 1.37
  1. Abbreviation: ART assisted reproductive technology, BMI body mass index
  2. aAny supplement use that started before the last menstrual period
  3. bCrude prevalence ratio was estimated by log-binomial regression models
  4. cAdjusted for maternal age, parity, maternal education, marital status, Italian citizenship, pregnancy intention, preconception health visit, infertility treatment, and maternal smoking before pregnancy
  5. dReference category