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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models for factors promoting the use of analgesia sedation

From: Sedation and analgesia practices at Italian neonatal intensive care units: results from the EUROPAIN study

Predictors of analgesia/sedation Univariate Multivariate
p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI)
Gestational age (weeks) ≤32 <.0001 3.54 (2.15–5.83)   
CRIB score <.0001 2.03 (1.66–2.48) 0.0002 1.46 (1.20–1.77)
Asphyxia, APGAR <5 at 5’ <.0001 33.17 (6.17–178.29)   
Sex, female 0.2999 0.78 (0.49–1.25)   
Born in same hospital as NICU 0.0307 0.497 (0.26–0.96)   
Type of ventilation     
 Invasive vs Spontaneous <.0001 117.16 (43.88–312.82) <.0001 62.59 (22.01–177.97)
 Noninvasive vs Spontaneous 2.61 (1.14–5.98) 2.60 (1.02–6.61)
Use of pain scales <.0001 19.04 (5.92–61.19) 0.0046 5.38 (1.69–17.16)
Pain specialist physician 0.2891 0.50 (0.14 – 1.81)   
Pain specialist nurse 0.1111 0.41 (0.14–1.23)   
Pain management team 0.4972 1.42 (0.52–3.91)   
Local guidelines for pain assessment 0.8953 1.10 (0.27–4.55)   
NICU beds (≤ 15 beds vs >15 beds) 0.0089 3.68 (1.39–9.77) 0.0372 3.55 (1.08–11.69)
Number of NICU admission 0.0677 0.99 (0.98–1.00)