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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models for factors promoting the use of pain assessments

From: Sedation and analgesia practices at Italian neonatal intensive care units: results from the EUROPAIN study

Predictors of pain assessment Univariate Multivariate   
  p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI)
Gestational age (weeks) ≤32 <.0001 14.05 (5.39–36.63) 0.0003 8.13 (2.64–25.03)
CRIB score 0.0005 1.77 (1.29-2.43)   
APGAR <5 at 5’ 0.0381 12.14 (1.15–128.49)   
Sex, female 0.7335 0.90 (0.50–1.63)   
Born in same hospital as NICU 0.1091 0.47 (0.18–1.19)   
Type of ventilation <.0001   <.0001  
 Invasive vs Spontaneous 253.33 (33.88- + ∞) 163.03 (19.35- + ∞)
 Noninvasive vs Spontaneous 10.86 (4.01–29.40) 6.06 (2.17–16.95)
Pain specialist physician 0.3706 4.51 (0.17–123.10)   
Pain specialist nurse 0.5546 2.36 (0.14–41.10)   
Pain management team 0.0342 16.51 (1.23–221.03) 0.0481 114.35 (1.04 - + ∞)
NICU beds (≤ 15 beds vs >15 beds) 0.8749 0.81 (0.06–11.61)   
Number of NICU admission 0.1075 0.95 (0.90–1.01)