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Table 1 Effects exerted by glucocorticoids on cells, and factors involved in the inflammatory response

From: Management of acute respiratory diseases in the pediatric population: the role of oral corticosteroids

Cells Factors involved in the inflammatory response Comments
Macrophages and monocytes Cascade of arachidonic acid (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) Mediated by inhibition of PLA2 and reduced COX-2 expression.
Inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1,2,4,5,6,11,13) and TNF-α Reduced production and release.
Cytokines exert multiple effects on inflammation, e.g., T-cell activation and stimulation of fibroblast proliferation.
Endothelial cells ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 are important for extravasation of leukocytes into tissues.
Basophils Histamine and LTC4 IgE-dependent release inhibited by glucocorticoids.
Fibroblasts Arachidonic acid See “Macrophages and monocytes”. Glucocorticoids also reduce the proliferation of fibroblasts.
Lymphocytes Cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TNF-α, GM-CSF, interferon-γ) See “Macrophages and monocytes”.
  1. COX-2 cyclooxygenase-2, ELAM-1 endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule-1, IL interleukin, LTC 4 leukotriene C4, PLA2 phospholipase A2, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α