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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample, by sex

From: Role of sleep duration and sleep-related problems in the metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents

Characteristics Boys (n = 1272) Girls (n = 1507) P value
Anthropometrics
 Age, (years) 13.26 (2.19) 13.17 (2.21) 0.294
 Weight, (kg) 47.55 (12.55) 46.16 (10.67) 0.002
 Height, (cm) 155.55 (13.87) 150.64 (9.54) < 0.001
 Body mass index, (kg/m2) 19.33 (2.90) 20.11 (3.18) < 0.001
 Body mass index, (z-score) 0.39 (0.91) 0.43 (0.78) < 0.001
 Waist circumference, (cm) 65.69 (7.42) 63.70 (7.42) < 0.001
Sexual maturity
 Prepuberty, n (%) 85 (6.68) 78 (5.17)  
 Puberty, n (%) 650 (51.11) 734 (48.77) 0.157
 Postpuberty, n (%) 537 (42.21) 696 (46.18)  
Blood sampling
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 46.91 (12.36) 47.49 (12.23) 0.215
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 85.19 (39.07) 96.53 (54.73) < 0.001
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 83.45 (15.82) 81.52 (15.72) 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 113.39 (14.04) 110.30 (12.36) < 0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 68.19 (9.31) 68.45 (8.59) 0.443
 Cardiorespiratory fitness, (ml.kg.min−1) 50.13 (3.66) 35.55 (2.79) < 0.001
Sleep duration
 Week days, hours/night 8.11 (1.61) 8.09 (1.69) 0.811
 Weekend, hours/night 9.63 (1.85) 9.82 (1.91) 0.010
 Short-long durationa 479 (37.7) 939 (62.3) 0.102
Sleep patterns
 Short sleep duration, n (%) 900 (70.48) 1055 (69.78) 0.686
 Bedtime problems, n (%) 292 (22.87) 374 (24.74) 0.249
 Excessive day sleepiness, n (%) 396 (31.01) 673 (44.51) < 0.001
 Awakenings during the night, n (%) 248 (19.42) 320 (21.16) 0.255
 Regularity and duration of sleep, n (%) 407 (31.87) 611 (40.41) < 0.001
Metabolic syndrome (abnormal values)
 High waist circumference, n (%)b 55 (4.38) 50 (3.34) 0.155
 Low HDL-c levels, n (%) 833 (65.23) 978 (64.68) 0.762
 High triglycerides levels, n (%) 278 (21.77) 497 (32.87) < 0.001
 High fasting blood glucose, n (%) 67 (5.25) 68 (4.50) 0.358
 High systolic blood pressure, n (%)c 201 (16.22) 196 (13.17) 0.025
 High diastolic blood pressure, n (%)c 130 (10.49) 165 (11.09) 0.618
Components metabolic syndrome, n (%)d
 0 280 (22.16) 317 (21.03) 0.017
 1 571 (44.87) 615 (40.94)
 2 308 (24.12) 419 (27.71)
 3 82 (6.42) 132 (8.73)
 4 26 (2.04) 19 (1.26)
 5 5 (0.39) 5 (0.33)
  1. Values are means (SD), except for categorical data n (%)
  2. a According to the National Sleep Foundation cut-off [25]; b (n = 2756) (Boys = 1257 Girls = 1499); c (n = 2727) (Boys = 1239 Girls = 1488); d Three or more components according to Ferranti et al. criteria