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Table 2 Mean differences of metabolic parameters according sleep duration and sleep quality, by sex

From: Role of sleep duration and sleep-related problems in the metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents

  Boys Girls
Sleep duration Recommended durationa Short-Long durationa P value Recommended durationa Short-Long durationa P value
 Waist circumference, (cm) 65.91 (7.58) 65.04 (7.38) 0.545 63.77 (7.18) 63.12 (7.62) 0.393
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 46.50 (12.41) 47.49 (12.52) 0.652 48.11 (12.75) 47.50 (11.62) 0.438
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 85.78 (38.87) 83.70 (36.91) 0.463 96.03 (53.37) 95.31 (43.76) 0.722
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 84.76 (15.79) 83.70 (36.91) 0.191 82.07 (16.16) 82.44 (16.20) 0.905
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 113.72 (14.17) 114.00 (13.78) 0.427 110.70 (12.20) 110.89 (12.38) 0.801
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 68.29 (9.60) 68.32 (9.34) 0.618 68.67 (8.81) 68.49 (8.94) 0.899
Bedtime problems Yes No P value Yes No P value
 Waist circumference, (cm) 65.75 (0.45) 65.41 (0.48) 0.601 63.40 (0.41) 63.69 (0.32) 0.693
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 45.68 (0.89) 46.30 (0.97) 0.653 47.00 (0.87) 48.06 (0.69) 0.370
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 90.86 (2.89) 86.41 (3.13) 0.496 95.64 (3.98) 97.67 (3.17) 0.948
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 84.97 (1.23) 85.93 (1.33) 0.602 80.12 (1.13) 81.47 (0.90) 0.463
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 114.22 (1.09) 114.82 (1.17) 0.738 108.82 (0.87) 111.89 (0.69) 0.007
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 67.44 (0.72) 69.70 (0.77) 0.030 67.50 (0.61) 68.91 (0.48) 0.088
Excessive day sleepiness
 Waist circumference, (cm) 65.77 (0.55) 65.39 (0.36) 0.693 63.11 (0.35) 63.98 (0.38) 0.090
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 46.25 (1.10) 45.73 (0.73) 0.808 48.07 (0.76) 46.99 (0.81) 0.185
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 93.41 (3.54) 83.86 (2.35) 0.032 93.27 (3.48) 100.04 (3.71) 0.135
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 85.81 (1.50) 85.09 (1.00) 0.575 79.98 (0.99) 81.62 (1.05) 0.208
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 114.64 (1.33) 114.40 (0.88) 0.741 110.44 (0.76) 110.27 (0.81) 0.743
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 69.28 (0.88) 67.87 (0.59) 0.153 68.12 (0.53) 68.28 (0.57) 0.821
Awakenings during the night
 Waist circumference, (cm) 66.05 (0.57) 65.10 (0.33) 0.185 63.46 (0.44) 63.63 (0.28) 0.615
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 45.20 (1.14) 46.77 (0.66) 0.129 48.26 (0.93) 46.80 (0.60) 0.175
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 90.81 (3.68) 86.46 (2.14) 0.420 98.26 (4.26) 95.05 (2.77) 0.129
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 85.50 (1.56) 85.39 (0.91) 0.916 80.44 (1.21) 81.15 (0.78) 0.593
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 115.04 (1.38) 114 (0.81) 0.509 111.20 (0.93) 109.51 (0.60) 0.199
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 69.05 (0.91) 68.09 (0.53) 0.342 68.56 (0.65) 67.84 (0.42) 0.422
Regularity and duration of sleep
 Waist circumference, (cm) 64.97 (0.51) 66.19 (0.42) 0.127 63.58 (0.33) 63.51 (0.40) 0.953
 HDL-c, (mg/dL) 46.05 (1.02) 45.93 (0.83) 0.791 47.06 (0.70) 48.00 (0.85) 0.369
 Triglycerides, (mg/dL) 87.21 (3.29) 90.06 (2.70) 0.631 97.90 (3.23) 95.40 (3.92) 0.557
 Fasting blood glucose, (mg/dL) 85.66 (1.40) 85.23 (1.15) 0.828 81.91 (0.92) 79.69 (1.11) 0.126
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 114.48 (1.23) 114.56 (1.02) 0.987 111.00 (0.70) 109.71 (0.86) 0.244
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 68.59 (0.81) 68.56 (0.67) 0.932 68.45 (0.49) 67.96 (0.60) 0.563
  1. Data are means (SD). Analysis adjusted by age, sexual maturity, body mass index (except for waist circumference), and cardiorespiratory fitness. a According to the National Sleep Foundation cut-off [25]