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Table 1 Characteristics of the population included in the study

From: Epidemiology and risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in a cohort of internationally adopted children: a retrospective study

Total 859 100%
Sex (n = 859)
Male 483 56.2%
Female 376 43.8%
Macro-area of origin (n = 859)
Europe and Russian federation 256 29.8%
Latin America 231 26.9%
Asia and Indian subcontinent 223 26.0%
Africa 149 17.3%
Climatic zone of origin (n = 859)
Tropical 438 51.0%
Sub-tropical 166 19.3%
Temperate 255 29.7%
Housing solution before adoption (n = 828)
Foster home 70 8.5%
Foster family 65 7.9%
Institute 693 80.6%
Mean duration of institutionalization (n = 750) 3.00 years SD ± 2.03 years
Complexion (n = 859)
Very fair/Fair 290 33.8%
Intermediate 340 39.6%
Olive/Brown 229 26.7%
Mean height (n = 793) 109 cm SD ± 21 cm
Mean weight (n = 797) 19.93 kg SD ± 9.02 kg
Mean BMI (n = 699) 16.0 SD ± 2.28
BMI status (n = 699)
Obese 59 8.4%
Overweight 67 9.6%
Normal 536 76.7%
Underweight 37 5.3%
Mean age at the arrival in Italy (n = 808) 5.31 years SD ± 2.92 years
Mean age at the blood draw (n = 859) 5.61 years SD ± 2.97 years
Mean time from the arrival to the blood draw (n = 808) 0.33 years SD ± 0.44 years
Season at blood draw (n = 859)
Spring 191 22.2%
Summer 149 17.3%
Fall 259 30.2%
Winter 260 30.3%
Mean Vitamin D (n = 859) 21.04 ng/mL SD ± 11.15 ng/mL
Vitamin D status (n = 859)
Severe Vitamin D Deficiency (<  10 ng/mL) 107 12.5%
Moderate Vitamin D Deficiency (10–20 ng/mL) 348 40.5%
Mild Vitamin D Deficiency (20–30 ng/mL) 276 32.1%
Normal Vitamin D (>  30 ng/mL) 128 14.9%
Mean PTH (n = 822) 32.24 pg/mL SD ± 15.56 ng/mL
PTH status (n = 822)   
Increased (>  65 pg/mL) 24 2.8%
Normal (10–65 pg/mL) 795 96.7%
Decreased (<  10 pg/mL) 3 0.4%
Mean ALP (n = 831) 385.01 IU/L SD ± 299.27 IU/L
ALP status (n = 831)
Increased 201 24.2%
Normal 630 75.8%
Mean Ca (n = 824) 9.94 mg/dL SD ± 0.45 mg/dL
Ca status (n = 824)
Increased 18 2.2%
Normal 803 97.5%
Decreased 3 0.4%
Mean P (n = 813) 4.86 mg/dL
P status (n = 813)
Increased 46 5.7%
Normal 731 89.9%
Decreased 36 4.4%
  1. BMI body mass index, PTH Parathyroid hormone, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, Ca Serum calcium, P Serum phosphates