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Table 4 Age at the arrival in Italy in years (Mean ± standard deviation) per Vitamin D status

From: Epidemiology and risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in a cohort of internationally adopted children: a retrospective study

  Vitamin D status
Severe VDD Moderate VDD Mild VDD Normal
Sex Male 6.15 ± 2.77 5.50 ± 2.75 4.91 ± 2.59 3.74 ± 2.75
Female 6.44 ± 2.92 6.06 ± 2.78 5.32 ± 3.01 4.02 ± 3.49
Macro-area Africa 5.18 ± 2.48 4.85 ± 2.19 4.24 ± 2.51 3.16 ± 2.64
Europe 6.16 ± 2.84 5.80 ± 2.71 5.28 ± 2.43 4.88 ± 3.40
Asia 6.32 ± 2.99 4.14 ± 2.15 3.25 ± 2.39 1.82 ± 1.29
Latin America 8.08 ± 2.37 7.16 ± 2.80 6.99 ± 2.37 6.31 ± 2.68
Season at blood draw Spring 6.46 ± 2.83 6.09 ± 2.85 3.87 ± 2.49 2.44 ± 1.95
Summer 5.77 ± 3.22 5.24 ± 2.61 4.62 ± 2.59 4.55 ± 3.73
Fall 5.70 ± 2.96 5.57 ± 2.61 5.59 ± 2.72 3.85 ± 2.59
Winter 6.46 ± 2.85 5.70 ± 2.90 5.59 ± 2.99 2.68 ± 3.86
Housing solution Foster home 7.37 ± 3.55 6.73 ± 2.86 6.62 ± 2.67 4.64 ± 2.78
Foster family 8.86 ± 2.96 6.81 ± 3.18 5.40 ± 2.43 6.79 ± 4.26
Orphanage 6.09 ± 2.85 5.73 ± 2.79 4.88 ± 2.78 3.57 ± 3.07
BMI Status Underweight 2.87 ± 0.49 5.07 ± 2.00 5.17 ± 2.03 5.76 ± 5.99
Normal weight 6.44 ± 2.56 6.08 ± 2.63 5.66 ± 2.39 5.42 ± 2.76
Overweight 7.75 ± 3.01 6.65 ± 2.64 5.99 ± 2.41 4.18 ± 2.07
Obese 6.71 ± 3.44 6.28 ± 2.26 7.19 ± 2.81 6.56 ± 2.12
  1. VDD Vitamin D Deficiency, BMI Body Mass Index