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Table 2 Determinants of stunting

From: Malnutrition, morbidity and infection in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: an epidemiological study

Variables Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
Lower limit Upper limit
Occurrence of symptoms in last 2 weeks (Ref:No)
 Yes 0,31 0,06 1,62 0,17
Child had Cough + Rapid Breath in the last 2 weeks (Ref:No)
 Yes 6,32 0,18 226,66 0,31
Treating of drinking water (Ref:Yes)
 No 0,48 0,09 2,68 0,41
Handwashing behaviour (Ref: Never/Rarely/Sometimes)
 Often/Always 0,52 0,12 2,23 0,38
Utensils for feeding the baby washed separately (Ref:Yes)
 No 0,2 0,03 1,48 0,11
Location of toilet facility (Ref: Within the compound)
 Outside the compound 0,995 0,22 4,48 0,996
Toilet facility used at night (Ref: Own flush/traditional pit/VIP toilet)
 Shared flush/traditional pit/VIP toilet or other 0,02 0,00 1,09 0,055
Birth weight (Ref: Birth weight > = 2500 g
 Birth weight < 2500 g 52,92 2,83 989,93 0,008
Exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months (Ref: No)
 Yes 102,94 1,13 9409,22 0,044
Fully immunized children (Ref: No)
 Yes 0,77 0,19 3,16 0,72
Mothers occupation (Ref: Not employed)
 Housewife 0,41 0,06 2,97 0,38
 Employed (salaried) 0,22 0,005 8,94 0,42
 Self employed 7,61 0,70 82,21 0,095
 Casual labourer 0,73 0,03 17,25 0,84
Mothers’ marital status (Ref: Not in a union)
 In a union 0,98 0,12 7,94 0,98
Age of mother/caregiver (years) (Ref: [14,15,16,17,18,19,20])
 21–24 2,51 0,42 14,96 0,31
 25–29 1,79 0,237,095 13,56 0,57
 30–45 1,40 0,126,400 15,39 0,79
Mothers’ educational attainment (Ref: Less than primary)
 Primary School 0,19 0,03 1,23 0,086
 Secondary School 5,52 0,19 159,00 0,32
 College/University 4,97 0,07 381,37 0,47
Number of children mother has (Ref: [1] child)
 2 children 0,53 0,04 7,73 0,65
 3 children 0,14 0,01 3,40 0,23
Housefold food security (Ref: Food secure)
 Mild food insecure access 0,57 0,04 8,09 0,68
 Moderate food insecure access 1,31 0,20 8,66 0,78
 Severe food insecure access 0,74 0,09 6,03 0,78
Timely introduction of solid,semi-solid or soft foods (Ref: No)
 Yes 0,10 0,00 4,24 0,23
Children who consumed at least 4 food groups (Ref: No)
 Yes 0,04 0,005 0,31 0,002
Study group (Ref: Control)
 Intervention 0,59 0,12 2,77 0,50
 Child’s age in months 0,81 0,54 1,22 0,32
Gender (Ref: Female)
 Male 4,99 1,04 24,09 0,045
 Constant 23,081,97 0,11 4,69E+ 09 0,11