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Table 1 Sample composition by socio-demographic, early, clinical, lifestyle factors and food habits of the ASSO subjects

From: Combined effect of different factors on weight status and cardiometabolic risk in Italian adolescents

Parameter 1 Parameter 2 N (%); (father) (%), [mother] [%]
Socio-demographic factors
 Gender***$$$ Male 524 (60.7)
Female 339 (39.3)
 Age 14–15 years 355 (41.1)
16–17 years 508 (58.9)
 Marital status Married 1204 (85.9); (601) (86.1), [603] [85.7]
Other 198 (14.1); (97) (13.9), [101] [14.3]
 Weight status***$ Normal weight 758 (54.1); (279) (40.1), [479] [68.2]
Overweight/obese 640 (45.8); (417) (59.9), [223] [31.8]
 Education Low 407 (29); (206) (29.5)***$, [201] [28.6]*$$
High 995 (70.9); (492) (70.5)***$, [503] [71.4]*$$
 Occupation Occupied 1030 (73.5); (621) (89.0), [409] [58.1]
Other 372 (26.45); (77) (11.0), [295] [41.9]
 Profession Manual job 118 (10.5); (94) (15.1), [24] [5.9]
Non-manual job 912 (89.5); (527) (84.9), [385] [94.1]
 Family Affluence Scalea Medium/low 309 (43.6)
High 400 (56.4)
 Pocket money Up to € 10 659 (92.9)
More than € 10 50 (7.1)
Early life factors
 Term of birth Full-term 588 (82.9)
Pre-term 121 (17.1)
 Breastfeeding Yes 569 (80.3)
Not 140 (19.7)
 Birth weight** Normal 464 (65.4)
Under/over weight 245 (34.6)
 Breastfeeding duration 3–5 months 466 (81.9)
6 months 103 (18.1)
 Type of birth* Natural 376 (53.0)
Caesarean 333 (47.0)
 Weaning 3–5 months 533 (75.2)
6 months 176 (24.8)
Clinical aspects
 Diagnosed diseasesb Not 617 (87.0)
Yes 92 (13.0)
 Family diseasesb Not 284 (40.1)
 Use of drugs Not 663 (93.5)
Yes 46 (6.5)
 Psycho-physical malaise scorec Low/very low 486 (68.5)
High/very high 223 (31.5)
Lifestyles
 Use of supplementsd**$ Not 641 (90.4)
Yes 68 (9.6)
 Smoking frequency Lower than 7 days/week 25 (40.3)
7 days/week 37 (59.7)
 Slimming regime***$$$ Not 585 (82.5)
Yes 124 (17.5)
 Alcohol consumer Not 195 (37.5)
Yes/sometimes 325 (62.5)
 Way to go to school$ Walking/by bike 126 (24.2)
By car/scooter 394 (75.8)
 Type of alcoholic drinks Beer/wine/light drinks 198 (60.9)
Spirits 127 (39.1)
 Physical activity statuse*$ Active 325 (62.5)
Sedentary 195 (37.5)
 Alcoholic riskf Not at risk 467 (89.8)
At risk 53 (10.2)
 Smoke Non-smoker/ experimenterg 458 (88.1)
Sporadic/weekly/dailyh 62 (11.9)
 Coffee consumption Not 296 (56.9)
Yes 224 (43.1)
Food habits
 Breakfast consumption Regular 457 (62.6)
None/sporadic 273 (37.4)
 Between meals None 337 (46.2)
At least one 393 (53.8)
 Breakfast adequacyi Adequate 226 (31.0)
Inadequate 504 (69.0)
 Industrial foods consumption Up to one/week 546 (74.8)
More than one/week 184 (25.2)
 School-break adequacyi Adequate 176 (24.1)
Inadequate 554 (75.9)
 Organic food consumption Yes 391 (53.6)
Not 339 (46.4)
 Lunch adequacyl Adequate 549 (75.2)
Inadequate 181 (24.8)
 Fresh vegetables/fruit consumption Yes 560 (76.7)
Not 170 (23.3)
 Afternoon-break adequacyi Adequate 204 (27.9)
Inadequate 526 (72.1)
 Vending machines foods consumption Not 375 (51.4)
Yes 355 (48.6)
 Dinner adequacyl Adequate 489 (67.0)
Inadequate 241 (33.0)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Significant associations with weight status, estimated by a chi-square test $p < 0.05, $$p < 0.01, $$$p < 0.001. Significant associations with CR, estimated by a chi-square test,
  2. aThe Family Affluence Scale (FAS) is a scale constructed by the sum of scores of the answers to questions about the presence of common goods such as computers, number of cars, single bedroom and annual holidays17
  3. bObesity, cardiovascular diseases, high triglycerides/cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, liver diseases, osteoporosis, cancer, food allergies, and food intolerances
  4. cThe score of psycho-physical malaise was constructed on the presence of one or more symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad mood, nervousness or anxiety, sleeping difficulties, dizziness [53]
  5. dVitamins; mixed minerals, single minerals such as iron or calcium; proteins, aminoacids, creatin carnitin; fibers; other
  6. eAssessed by considering “sedentary” whoever stayed on average more than 3 h a day watching TV, playing computers or videogames
  7. fCalculated on the basis of alcoholic daily intake greater than 12 g. It is identified as the risk of health problems related to alcohol abuse
  8. gNon smoker: never tried smoking in his/her life; Experimenter: tried smoking at least once in his/her life
  9. hSporadic: smokes less than one cigarette per week
  10. iEvaluated with resoect to a proper meal excluding carbonated beverages or other junk food
  11. lEvaluated with respect to a proper meal including a first or a second course with vegetables, fruit, bread, and excluding carbonated beverages or other junk food