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Table 2 Maternal characteristics and birth outcomes in CAKUTs

From: Prevalence, types, and malformations in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in newborns: a retrospective hospital-based study

Variable Total births Number of cases of CAKUTs Prevalence per 1000 births OR 95% CI
Infant gender
 Male 917,758 1583 1.72 1.28 (1.18–1.38)*
 Female 818,510 1096 1.34 Ref
Maternal age
  < 20 48,776 52 1.06 0.65 (0.50–0.86)**
 20- 396,705 574 1.45 0.89 (0.80–0.99)***
 25- 761,274 1243 1.63 Ref
 30- 374,560 650 1.74 1.06 (0.97–1.17)
  ≥ 35 166,708 271 1.63 1.00 (0.87–1.14)
Multiple births 31,121 75 2.41 1.53 (1.21–1.92)*
Single birth 1,716,902 2715 1.58 Ref
Region
 Urban 875,763 1562 1.78 1.27 (1.18–1.37)*
 Rural 872,275 1228 1.41 Ref
  1. Abbreviations: CAKUTs congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval *P<0.001 **P=0.002 ***P=0.016