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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Middle-term bowel function and quality of life in low-type anorectal malformation

Variable Vestibular fistula (n = 39) Perineal fistula (n = 43) Control group (n = 86) P
Gender
 Boy 0(0%) 22(51.2%) 52(60.5%) < 0.001
 Girl 39(100%) 21(48.8%) 34(39.5%)  
 Current Age (year) 7.17 ± 2.06 6.53 ± 1.68 6.68 ± 2.28 0.356
 BMI (Kg/m2)b 15.73 ± 4.04 16.34 ± 2.81 15.73 ± 3.21 0.667
 Weight at surgery(Kg) 7.25 ± 5.27 5.09 ± 3.30 0.013
 Age at surgery (year) 1.11 ± 2.30 0.51 ± 1.78 0.001
Surgical proceduresc
 Procedure A 0(0%) 21(50.0%)  
 Procedure B 0(0%) 15(35.7%)  
 Procedure C 39(100.0%) 6(14.3%) < 0.001
Comorbidity
 Circulatory system 2 (5.1%) 7(16.3%) 0.425
 Urinary system 1 (2.6%) 1 (2.3%)  
 Others 3 (7.7%) 2 (4.7%)  
 No 33 (84.6%) 33 (76.7%)  
  1. a Data were presented as n (%) and mean ± standard deviation
  2. b BMI was calculated using current weight and height
  3. c Procedures performed for perineal fistula located inside the sphincter (Procedure A), perineal fistula located partly inside the sphincter (Procedure B), and vestibular fistula (Procedure C). See Methods for details