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Table 2 Bivariate correlations between BISQ, QUIT, PAPA, PAMA, paternal involvement and bedtime difficulties perceived by mothers

From: Parental Mental Health, Fathers’ Involvement and Bedtime Resistance in Infants

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Infants’ Bedtime Difficulties_BISQ_MO 1       
2. Negative Emotionality_QUIT_MO .04 1      
3. Minutes taken to fall asleep_BISQ_MO .30* .10 1     
4. Paternal Post-partum affective disorders PAPA_TOT .27* .01 .08 1    
5. Maternal Post-partum affective disorders PAMA_TOT .32* .14 .17 .45** 1   
6. Constant Bedtime Routines_BISQ_MO −.37** .02 −.15 −.12 −.13 1  
7. Paternal Involvement_MO −.15 −.52* .02 −.03 .06 −.12 1
Mean 2.10 2.73 2.44 6.01 6.75 4.34 3.18
SD 1.27 .70 .74 4.43 4.67 1.06 1.01
Range 1–5 0–4.5 1–4 0–16 0–21 1–5 1–5
  1. * p < .05; ** p < .01
  2. Abbreviations: MO = reported by mothers; BISQ = Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire; QUIT = Italian Temperament Questionnaires; PAPA_TOT = Perinatal Assessment of Paternal Affectivity Total score; PAMA_TOT = Perinatal Assessment of Maternal Affectivity Total score