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Table 3 Comparison of behaviors and psychological variables mean scores between groups, before and after the intervention

From: Effectiveness of message-framing intervention on complementary feeding related behaviors among mothers with infants aged 4–8 months: a 3-arm randomized controlled trial

 VariableGroups
(N = 30)
TimeP-value*
Before intervention (four-month infants)
Mean ± SD
After intervention (eight-month infants)
Mean ± SD
Psychological factorsKnowledgeGF21.33 ± 5.0630.30 ± 4.17p < 0.001
LF20.53 ± 5.3732.26 ± 3.27p < 0.001
Control20.60 ± 3.3824.80 ± 3.61p < 0.001
ap-value aP = 0.76p < 0.001 
AttitudeGF139.06 ± 11.90154.33 ± 15.14p < 0.001
LF139.76 ± 12.65166.76 ± 12.08p < 0.001
Control139.13 ± 11.56138.76 ± 14.280.85
p-valuebP = 0.97p < 0.001 
Self-efficacyGF54.86 ± 8.8961.13 ± 4.53p < 0.001
LF55.93 ± 6.8861.83 ± 3.27p < 0.001
Control56.30 ± 4.8957.56 ± 4.820.25
p-valuebP = 0.71p < 0.001 
The behavior of mothers regarding the diversity and appropriateness of onset and continuity of complementary feedingBehavior related to initiate complementary feedingGF22.66 ± 2.83
LF23.16 ± 2.33
Control20.36 ± 3.53
p-valuebP < 0.001
Behavior related to diversity and appropriateness of the continuity of complementary feedingGF129.86 ± 13.12
LF140.10 ± 11.28
Control115.33 ± 9.48
p-valuebp < 0.001
The behavior of the mother at the onset of complementary feedingAvoid giving boiling water to infants under the age of six monthsGF3.97 ± 1.09
LF4.10 ± 1.15
Control2.87 ± 1.22
p-valuebp < 0.001
Avoid giving sugar water to infants under the age of six monthsGF4.90 ± 0.30
LF4.77 ± 0.81
Control4.77 ± 0.56
p-valuebP = 0.61
Start of complementary feeding at the end of six monthsGF4.33 ± 1.51
LF4.60 ± 1.22
Control3.53 ± 1.96
p-valuebP = 0.03
Total behaviorGF152.53 ± 13.71
LF163.26 ± 12.55
Control135.70 ± 9.98
p-value bp < 0.001
  1. aPaired sample t-test bANOVA