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Table 1 Criteria for the Diagnosis of Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

From: Auxological and endocrinological features in internationally adopted children

Terminology Diagnostic Features
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) All of the following criteria:
- three facial abnormalities (ie, smooth philtrum, thin vermillion border, and small palpebral fissures). Midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, microcephaly or epicanthal folds may also be observed;
- growth deficiency (height and/or weight ≤ 10th percentile at any age)
- structural, neurologic, or functional central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities
- prenatal exposure to alcohol (PAE)a
Partial FAS - some (but not all of the physical features of FAS) (see above)
- CNS damage (structural, neurologic, and/or functional impairment)
- confirmed prenatal exposure to alcohol
Alcohol-related birth defects Individuals who do not have the facial characteristics of full FAS
- Significant birth defects affecting the heart, eyes, kidneys, and/or bones resulting from PAE
- Hearing may also be affected
- Usually do not meet criteria for CNS structural or functional abnormalities
- Confirmed prenatal exposure to alcohol
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder Cluster of symptoms that may include intellectual disabilities as well as challenges with behaviour and learning resulting from PAE
 May also have a CNS anomaly
 Often perform poorly in school and have difficulties with maths, memory, attention, judgment, and impulse control
 Confirmed prenatal exposure to alcohol
Neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE) Impairment of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning
- Combines deficits in these 3 areas in conjunction with evidence of PAE, childhood onset of symptoms, and significant distress or impairment in social, academic, occupational, or other important areas
- Confirmed prenatal exposure to alcohol
  1. CNS, central nervous system. aNot necessary if the first 3 features are present. Adapted by [25].