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Table 1 Summary of available evidence and clinical effects of selected probiotic strains commonly used for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

From: Probiotics’ efficacy in paediatric diseases: which is the evidence? A critical review on behalf of the Italian Society of Pediatrics

  L. rhamnosus GG L. reuteri
DSM 17938
Saccharomyces boulardii Bacillus clausii
Available Evidence
 Highest level of evidence Metanalysis Metanalysis Metanalysis Metanalysis
 Number of RCTs in children 16 4 22 7
Investigational setting
 Country Income a High
Upper-middle
Lower-middle
High
Upper-middle
High
Upper-middle
Lower -middle
High
Lower-middle
 Inpatients/outpatients Inpatients Outpatients Inpatients Outpatients Inpatients Outpatients Inpatients Outpatients
 Evidence in children living in Italy Yes Yes Yes Yes
Outcomes
 Duration of diarrhea ++ ++ +++ +
 Hospital admission NA NA NA
 Length of hospitalization +++ + +++ ++
 Healing within 48–72 h + NA ++ NA
 Stool output NA NA NA
 Stool frequency NA +
  1. a level of income according to World Bank classification,
  2. NA Not assessable,
  3. (−) no effect, (+) minimal or borderline effect, (++) clinical effect, (+++) relevant and consistent clinical effect