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Table 4 Shared Gompertz distribution gamma shared frailty model for the predictors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Incidence of neonatal mortality and its predictors among live births in Ethiopia: Gompertz gamma shared frailty model

Variable Neonate died Crude Hazard Ratio (CHR) with 95% CI Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% CI
No Yes
Residence
 Urban 1175 41 1 1
 Rural 9527 279 1.83 [1.27, 2.64] 1.51 [0.86, 2.64]
Maternal age
 15–24 2387 59 0.85 [0.64, 1.15] 0.93 [0.62,1.39]
 25–34 5687 155 0.66 [0.50, 0.85] 0.64 [0.48, 0.87]
  ≥ 35 2628 106 1 1
Maternal education status
 No 7058 225 1 1
 Primary 2880 71 0.87 [0.66, 1.14] 1.13 [0.84, 1.52]
 Secondary and higher 763 24 0.77 [0.51, 1.15] 1.36 [0.83, 2.24]
Wealth status
 Poorest 2584 52 1.73 [1.20, 2.50] 0.92 [0.52, 1.63]
 Poorer 2446 73 1.78 [1.18, 2.68] 1.09 [0.60, 1.96]
 Middle 2209 70 1.56 [1.01, 2.42] 0.99 [0.54, 1.88]
 Richer 1921 78 1.49 [0.95, 2.33] 0.95 [0.53, 1.71]
 Richest 1540 47 1 1
Sex of household
 Male 9211 282 1 1
 Female 1491 38 0.65 [0.48, 0.89] 0.68 [0.49, 1.02]
Sex of neonate
 Female 5206 92 1 1
 Male 5496 228 1.87 [1.49, 2.37] 1.92 [1.52, 2.43]*
Type of birth
 Single 10,451 279 1 1
 Twin 251 41 6.12 [4.31, 8.69] 5.22 [3.62, 7.53]*
Parity
 1 1421 13 1 1
 2–4 4684 151 1.73 [1.14, 2.63] 1.23 [0.77, 1.97]
  ≥ 5 4596 156 1.96 [1.29,2.99] 1.10 [0.63, 1.93]
Preceding birth interval
 18–36 months 4001 110 1 1
  < 18 months 888 54 2.10 [1.53, 2.88] 2.07 [1.51, 2.85]*
  > 36 months 5813 156 0.95 [0.75, 1.22] 1.05 [0.81, 1.38]
Size of neonate at birth
 Average 4483 97 1 1
 Small 2856 101 1.67 [1.27, 2.19] 1.64 [1.24, 2.16]*
 Large 3362 122 1.51 [1.15, 1.99] 1.53 [1.16, 2.01]*
Media exposure
 No 7192 183 1 1
 Yes 3510 137 0.88 [0.69, 1.13] 1.14 [0.85, 1.53]
Covered by health insurance
 No 10,321 311 1 1
 Yes 380 9 0.52 [0.21, 1.28] 0.64 [0.26, 1.59]
ANC visit during pregnancy
 No 6028 238 1 1
 Yes 4673 83 2.95 [2.25, 3.86] 2.10 [1.44, 3.06]
Vaccinated for TT during pregnancy
 No 6762 249 2.67 [2.00, 3.57] 1.41[0.95, 2.10]
 Yes 3940 71 1 1
Wanted child
 Yes 8041 237 1 1
 No 2660 83 0.80 [0.59, 1.10] 0.79 [0.57, 1.09]
  1. * = p-value < 0.01