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Table 1 Patient details

From: Iatrogenic severe hyperglycemia due to parenteral administration of glucose in children – a case series

  Pat. No. Age and diagnosis Glucose concentration and error type Maximum serum glucose [mg/dl (mmol/l)] Reduction of blood glucose
[mg/dl/h (mmol/l/h)]
Insulin therapy Initial pH Most altered Na + within first 24 h of hyperglycemia [mmol/l] Sequelae
Good outcome 1 Newborn, preterm birth G12.5%, individual PN, AE: infusion rate too high (prescribed 4.5 ml/h) 1000 (55.5) 240 (13.3) No 7.30 140 None
2 Newborn, esophageal atresia G40%, individual PN, AE: infusion rate too high (prescribed 1 ml/h) 2240 (124.3) 173 (9.6) Yes 7.07 127 None
3 Infant, craniosynosthosis G50%, AE: 33 ml/h instead of 3.3 ml/h 595 (33.0) 210 (11.7) Yes 7.38 134 None
4 Child, after liver transplant G20%, AE: bolus of glucose instead of cristalline solution 539 (29.9) 75 (4.2) No 7.36 149 None
5 Child, after surgery G50%, AE: infusion rate too high 800 (44.4) None
6 Child, rhabdomyo-sarcoma G70%, individual PN, error type unknown (prescribed infusion rate 24 ml/h) 983 (54.6) 91 (5.1) Yes n.d. None
7 Child, acute lymphatic leukemia ME: wrong composition of individual PN 840 (46.6) 113 (6.3) Yes 6.96 163 None
Poor outcome 8 Newborn, preterm birth G50%, individual PN, AE: infusion rate too high (prescribed 2.4 ml/h) 569 (31.6) 58 (3.2) Yes 7.03 142 CP, psychomotor retardation
9 Infant, biliary atresia Unknown glucose concentration, AE: individual PN, infusion rate too high (prescribed 15.8 ml/h) 1810 (100.5) 72 (4.0) No 6.74 118 Died
10 Infant, gastroenteritis G50%, PE: prescribed infusion rate too high > 2000 (> 111.0) Yes n.d. Died
11 Child, after bone marrow transplant 70% glucose, AE: 350 ml in 2 h instead of 30 ml/h 1900 (105.5) 205 (11.4) Yes 7.02 159 Chronic renal failure
  1. G Glucose, PN Parenteral nutrition, CP Cerebral palsy, AE Administration error, PE Prescription error, ME Mixing error