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Table 4 Effect of Zinc on children’s behavior problems (N = 1897)

From: Digital screen time and its effect on preschoolers’ behavior in China: results from a cross-sectional study

VariableTotal Problems (R2 = 0.12)Internalizing (R2 = 0.07)Externalizing (R2 = 0.14)
β (SE)95% CIpβ (SE)95% CIpβ (SE)95% CIp
Screen time
  > 60 min3.43 (1.33)0.70–6.160.0242.63 (0.31)−0.71–5.970.1804.04 (0.28)1.17–6.910.016
Gender
 Male
 Female−3.07 (1.21)−8.26–2.120.035−0.87 (0.54)−2.32–0.580.894−4.43 (0.38)−6.07−− 2.780.017
The only child
 Yes
 No−4.54 (1.47)−6.04−−2.040.029−3.63 (0.32)−4.87−− 2.390.015−1.63 (0.91)−2.78−−0.580.175
Household
 Rural
 Urban−3.96 (0.61)−6.58−−1.340.041−2.55 (0.83)−3.03−− 2.070.576−4.05 (2.05)−7.86−−0.240.046
Maternal education
 High school or higher
 Secondary1.21 (1.83)0.45–1.970.2490.72 (0.53)0.07–1.350.5941.45 (0.37)−0.05–2.950.160
 Primary school or lower2.58 (0.95)0.71–4.450.0420.74 (0.54)0.06–1.420.3012.79 (0.59)1.34–4.240.042
Marital status
 Married
 Divorced3.83 (1.08)1.36–6.300.0455.17 (2.13)2.63–7.710.0224.50 (1.26)−1.63–10.630.025
 Widowed3.09 (0.91)−5.01–11.190.0444.07 (1.14)0.69–7.450.0372.90 (0.46)−0.99–6.790.091
Family income
  < 3000RMB
 3000-5000RMB−3.49 (1.18)−8.35−−1.370.0460.33 (0.04)−2.28−− 1.620.098−0.66 (0.24)−1.96–0.700.150
  > 5000RMB− 2.61 (1.57)−3.84−−1.380.032−0.69 (0.47)−1.18−− 0.200.346− 1.22 (0.96)−2.91–0.470.079
Primary Caregiver,
 Parents
 Grandparents2.05 (1.37)1.77–2.330.0521.67 (0.85)1.17–2.270.6191.42 (0.34)−2.90–4.320.054
 Nanny or others4.41 (0.58)2.37–6.050.0213.27 (0.32)1.89–4.660.0192.66 (0.54)0.40–5.080.037
  1. Note: p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant, and the data were set in bold