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Table 1 Training Program

From: Real-time ultrasound for tip location of umbilical venous catheter in neonates: a pre/post intervention study

Formal classroom lesson Duration
40 min
Repeated weekly (4 times in a month) to allow all the trainees to attend at least once.
Showing and highlighting the advantages of using RUS vs traditional chest radiography for UVC insertion and localization, according to literature. Teaching how to perform an US-guided UVC placement.
Materials and Methods
Case reports and images from literature and clinical practice on correct and incorrect UVC positions. Images and descriptions of all the potential complication of a malpositioned UVC.
Images and US scans of anatomic and vascular structures to be identified for the procedure. US scans (images and videos) of UVC in correct or incorrect positions. Description, images and videos of how to perform the complete US-guided UVC positioning procedure.
Bedside US practise Timing
After each frontal lesson and anytime trainees were interested in practising US on babies with an UVC in the correct position, only when in good and stable conditions (parental written consent was previously obtained)
Showing how to set the bedside US and the correct probe. Teaching how to identify anatomic and vascular structures and the catheter tip position in babies with an UVC in a good position (parental consent was previously obtained).
The Echo-team member assisted as a direct supervisor a trainee while performing the scans.
Bedside teaching Timing
Every time (daytime) an UVC was placed during the training period
Teaching how to perform a complete US-guided UVC placement
The Echo-team member performed the RUS or assisted as a supervisor a trainee in the US-guided UVC placement.
Informative teaching material Aim
Improving access to the training program and contents and support the learning.
Materials and Methods
Posters containing description and illustrations of the entire procedure were posted on walls in each ward and pocket cards were available for all the trainees. They explained how to set the US machine, which probe to use, where to find all the materials, how to set the sterile field with the probe. The complete sequence of the US-guided UVC placement was described and explanatory images showed.
Weekly surveys Aim
Improving or changing some aspects of the training.
Materials and Methods
Written questionnaires or talk with a Echo-team member through which the trainees were frequently encouraged to express their approval or concerns.