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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcomes. Data are shown as number (%) or median (interquartile range), mean (standard deviation)

From: Real-time ultrasound for tip location of umbilical venous catheter in neonates: a pre/post intervention study

  Pre-Intervention Phase
N = 26
Post-Intervention Phase
N = 28
P
Real-time US 4 (15.3) 25 (89.2) <  0.0001
Chest X-Ray 24 (92.3) 9 (32.1) <  0.0001
Time to visualize UVC tip (h) 2 [1–3] 0 [0–1] 0.0012
N of manipulations first 24 h 11 (42.3) 5 (17.8) 0.0740
UVC in a good position 8 (30.7) 21 (75.0) 0.0023
Double lumen UVC 21 (80.7) 21 (75.0) 0.7471
Size 3.5–4 Fr 18 (69.2) 16 (57.1) 0.4082
Size 5 Fr 8 (30.8) 12 (42.9) 0.4082
UVC dwell time (days) 4.7 (2.7) 5.4 (2.5) 0.3306
Sepsis 2 (7.7) 0 0.2271
Elective UVC removal 19 (73.1) 24 (85.7) 0.3198
Catheter-related complications 2 (7.7) 0 0.2271
Antibiotic therapy 20 (76.9) 20 (71.4) 0.3187