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Table 3 Signs of micronutrients deficit in infants and children parentally fed and recommended doses for parenteral supply in the same population [66, 67]

From: Macronutrient balance and micronutrient amounts through growth and development

  Signs of deficiency Infants Children and adolescents
Vitamin A night blindness 150–300 μg/Kg/die 150 μg/die
Vitamin D ricket 400 IU/die 400–600 IU/die
Vitamin E cholestasis, liver damage 2,8–3,5 mg/die 11 mg/die
Vitamin K bleeding 10 μg/Kg/die 200 μg/die
Vitamin C mucosal bleeding, scurvy 10–25 mg/Kg/die 80 mg/die
Thiamine B1 Beri-beri, lactic acidosis, Wernicke’s encephalopathy 0,35–0,5 mg/Kg/die 1,2 mg/die
Riboflavin mucosal hyperemia, stomatitis, dermatitis, anemia, eye disorders 0,15–0,2 mg/Kg/die 1,4 mg/die
Pyridoxine B6 dermatitis, seizures, hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, depression, encephalopathy 0,15–0,2 mg/Kg/die 1 mg/Kg/die
Niacin Pellagra (skin, intestinal and neurological problems) 4–6.8 mg/Kg/die 17 mg/die
Vitamin B12 megaloblastic anemia, neurological disorders 0,3 μg/Kg/die 1 μg/die
Biotin B8 lethargy, hypotonia, irritability, alopecia, dermatitis, anorexia, pallor, glossitis, nausea, hyperesthesia, muscle pain, hypercholesterolemia 5–8 μg/Kg/die 20 μg/die
Folic acid hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia 56 μg/Kg/die 140 μg/die
Iron anemia 50–100 μg/Kg/die 50–100 μg/Kg/die
Zinc stunted growth, infections, typical skin rash 100–250 μg/Kg/die 50 μg/Kg/die
Iodine impaired thyroid function 1 μg/Kg/die 1 μg/Kg/die
Selenium erythrocyte macrocytosis, depigmentation, muscle weakness 2–3 μg/Kg/die 2–3 μg/Kg/die