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Table 3 Characteristics of Group “ED”, cases accessing PPCc at Emergency Department

From: Acute toxic exposures in children: analysis of a three year registry managed by a Pediatric poison control Center in Italy

Age Category Infant (n.95, 8.8%) Pre-School (n.773, 71.9%) School (n.99, 9.2%) Adolescent (n.108, 10.0%) Total p-value
Gender       0.045
 Male 56 (58.9) 423 (54.7) 61 (61.6) 47 (43.5) 587 (54.6)  
 Female 39 (41.1) 350 (45.3) 38 (38.4) 61 (56.5) 488 (45.4)  
Time of exposure       < 0.001
 Morning 19 (20.0) 148 (19.1) 19 (19.2) 9 (8.3) 195 (18.1)  
 Afternoon 26 (27.4) 284 (36.7) 33 (33.3) 41 (38.0) 384 (35.7)  
 Evening 43 (45.3) 325 (42.0) 41 (41.4) 45 (41.7) 454 (42.2)  
 Night 7 (7.4) 16 (2.1) 6 (6.1) 13 (12.0) 42 (3.9)  
Location of poison exposure       < 0.001
 Home 92 (96.8) 743 (96.1) 80 (80.8) 74 (68.5) 989 (92.0)  
 Outside 3 (3.2) 30 (3.9) 19 (19.2) 34 (31.5) 86 (8.0)  
Reasons for poison exposure       < 0.001
Accidental exposure 95 (100.0) 773 (100.0) 94 (95.0) 30 (27.8) 992 (92.3)  
  General accidental exposure 79 (83.2) 741 (95.9) 87 (87.9) 29 (26.9) 936 (87.1)  
  Medication error 16 (16.8) 30 (3.9) 6 (6.1) 1 (0.9) 53 (4.9)  
  Abuse 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.3)  
Intentional exposure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.0) 78 (72.3) 83 (7.7)  
  Abuse substance 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 41 (38.0) 42 (3.9)  
Suicide attempt 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.0) 37 (34.3) 41 (3.8)  
Categories of exposure
Pharmaceutical 36 (37.9) 239 (30.9) 25 (25.3) 40 (37.0) 340 (31.6) < 0.001
  Neuroactive 2 (2.1) 43 (5.6) 8 (8.1) 21 (19.4) 74 (6.9)  
  Analgesic 8 (8.4) 42 (5.4) 6 (6.1) 12 (11.1) 68 (6.3)  
  Cardioactive 5 (5.3) 47 (6.1) 2 (2.0) 3 (2.8) 57 (5.3)  
  Hormones 4 (4.2) 33 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 37 (3.4)  
  Antistaminic 2 (2.1) 16 (2.1) 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 20 (1.9)  
  Respiratory 3 (3.2) 13 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9) 17 (1.6)  
  Antibiotic 4 (4.2) 9 (1.2) 2 (2.0) 1 (0.9) 16 (1.5)  
  Topic 5 (5.3) 10 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 15 (1.4)  
  Other 1 (1.1) 8 (1.0) 3 (3.0) 2 (1.9) 14 (1.3)  
  Supplements 1 (1.1) 9 (1.2) 1 (1.0) 0 (0,0) 11 (1.0)  
  Gastrointestinal 1 (1.1) 4 (0.5) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (0.6)  
  Homeopathic 0 (0.0) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.5)  
Non Pharmaceutical 59 (62.1) 534 (69.1) 74 (74.7) 68 (63.0) 735 (68.4) < 0.001
  Domestic product 12 (12.6) 173 (22.4) 18 (18.2) 5 (4.6) 208 (19.3)  
  Industrial product 17 (17.9) 138 (17.9) 23 (23.2) 4 (3.7) 182 (16.9)  
  Caustic 4 (4.2) 118 (15.3) 11 (11.1) 9 (8.3) 142 (13.2)  
  Abuse Substance 4 (4.2) 13 (1.7) 1 (1.0) 41 (38.0) 59 (5.5)  
  Other 9 (9.5) 18 (2.3) 13 (13.1) 4 (3.7) 44 (4.1)  
  Plant 4 (4.2) 27 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 31 (2.9)  
  Cosmetic 2 (2.1) 26 (3.4) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.9) 30 (2.8)  
  Food 4 (4.2) 10 (1.3) 5 (5.1) 4 (3.7) 23 (2.1)  
  Pesticide 3 (3.2) 11 (1.4) 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 16 (1.5)  
Route of exposition       < 0.001
  Ingestion 77 (81.1) 707 (91.5) 79 (79.8) 92 (85.2) 955 (88.8)  
  Cutaneous 3 (3.2) 27 (3.5) 8 (8.1) 2 (1.9) 40 (3.7)  
  Inhalation 6 (6.3) 3 (0.4) 6 (6.1) 14 (13.0) 29 (2.7)  
  Mucosal contact 6 (6.39 19 (2.5) 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 27 (2.5)  
  Ocular 0 (0.0) 12 (1.6) 4 (4.09 0 (0.0) 16 (1.5)  
  Other 3 (3.2) 4 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.7)  
  Injection 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)  
Clinical presentation       < 0.001
Asymptomatic 80 (84.2) 584 (75.6) 55 (55.6) 33 (31.6) 752 (70.0)  
Symptomatic 15 (15.8) 189 (24.4) 44 (44.4) 75 (69.4) 323 (30.0)  
  Gastrointestinal 8 (53.3) 130 (68.8) 23 (52.3) 18 (24.0) 179 (55.4)  
  Neurologic 5 (33.3) 23 (12.2) 5 (11.4) 44 (58.7) 77 (23.8)  
  Dermatological 1 (6.7) 24 (12.7) 12 (27.3) 3 (4.0) 40 (12.4)  
  Multiple 1 (6.7) 3 (1.6) 1 (2.3) 4 (5.3) 9 (2.8)  
  Respiratory 0 (0.0) 3 (1.6) 3 (6.8) 3 (4.0) 9 (2.8)  
  Others 0 (0.0) 6 (3.2) 0 (0.0) 3 (4.09 9 (2.8)  
Hospital admission       < 0.001
 No 53 (55.8) 433 (56.0) 49 (49.5) 29 (26.9) 564 (52.5)  
 Yes 42 (44.2) 340 (44.0) 50 (50.5) 79 (73.1) 511 (47.5)  
Decontamination       < 0.001
 None 83 (87.4) 632 (81.8) 84 (84.8) 81 (75.0) 880 (81.9)  
 Charcoal 9 (9.5) 106 (13.7) 9 (9.1) 17 (15.7) 141 (13.1)  
 Gastric lavage & charcoal 1 (1.1) 17 (2.2) 1 (1.0) 6 (5.6) 25 (2.3)  
 Ocular irrigation 0 (0.0) 14 (1.8) 4 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 18 (1.7)  
 Topic wash 1 (1.1) 3 (0.4) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.5)  
 Gastric lavage 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.7) 5 (0.5)  
 Intestinal irrigation 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)  
  1. p-value calculated for each variable