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Table 1 Summary of the reported cases of severe PLV S. aureus infections in children from 2010 to 2020

From: Panton-valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus severe infection in an infant: a case report and a review of the literature

Author, Year, Nation, Reference Patients Age, sex Clinical presentation Radiological findings Antibiotic treatment MSSA/MRSA and genotype Treatment antibiotic duration Other treatment Outcome
Esteves, 2010, Portugal [15] 1 14-years, M Fever, cough, thoracic and right inguinal pain 10 days after a toe trauma Bilateral pneumonia and minor pleural effusion (RX).
Deep venous thrombosis of right femoral vein (ultrasound).
Bilateral thoracic infiltrates and pleural effusion (CT).
Right hip arthritis (CT)
Intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam followed by intravenous flucloxacillin MSSA genotype not clarified 4 weeks of intravenous flucloxacillin Low-molecular weight heparin Complete resolution
Erturan, 2012, United Kingdom [16] 1 16-years, M Lethargy, loss of appetite, worsening pain of right knee. Fever. Subsequent multilobar pneumonia and pericardial effusion, septicaemia Right proximal tibial osteomyelitis (MRI) Intravenous fluoxacillin, which was substituted on day 9 by intravenous linezolid and daptomycin on day 11 and oral clindamycin MSSA genotype not clarified Intravenous linezolid 21 days, intravenous daptomycin 19 days, clindamycin 30 days (which was continued at home) Arthroscopic washout Complete resolution
Wangjirapan, 2012, Thailand [4] 1 8-years, M Fever, low back pain, dyspnoea, abdomen distension with guarding and moderate tenderness, endocarditis Paravertebral abscess, multiple consolidations in the bilateral basal lungs, pleural effusion, thrombosis inferior vena cava, left common iliac vein, proximal left internal iliac vein, small liver abscess, osteomyelitis 5th lumbar vertebral body (CT). Intravenous cloxacillin, clindamycin and gentamicin. MSSA
genotype not clarified
Gentamicin 14 days, cloxacilin and clindamycin 6 weeks. Proper surgical drainages A CT-scan at follow up demonstrated a significantly decreased lung abscess and left pleural effusion. He ambulated well and went back to school
Ceroni, 2012, Switzerland [2] 1 12-years, F Fever, swollen left ankle. Redness of left foot. Large osteomyelitis of left tibia with intramedullary abscesses and significant edema of surrounding muscles (MRI) Intravenous flucloxacillin and gentamicin MRSA genotype not clarified Four weeks of intravenous antibiotics, follow by 4 weeks of oral antibiotic (not clarified) Recurrent surgical drainage (5 times) Sever restriction of the motion the left ankle
Haider, 2013, United Kingdom [3] 1 12-years, M Sore throat, fever, haemoptysis, progressive respiratory failure Extensive bilateral alveolar pulmonary shadowing (chest X-ray) Intravenous cefuroxime Not clarified if MSSA or MRSA Not clarified No surgical treatment Death
Fitzgerald, 2013, United Kingdom [17] 1 14-years, M Fever, back pain (after rugby training), follow by severe necrotizing pneumonia Discitis and peridural abscess at L3-L4 (MRI).
Bilateral interstitial infiltrates (chest X-ray)
Intravenous flucloxacillin and clindamycin, followed by ceftriaxone, clindamycin, clarithromycin and linezolid MSSA genotype not clarified After 7 days he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral clindamycin for 3 months No surgical treatment.
Intravenous immunoglobulin
Complete resolution
Montagnani, 2013, Italy [18] 3 3-months, M Respiratory distress and poor feeding Complete atelectasis of left lung, pyopneumothorax and necrotic areas of parenchyma (CT). Intravenous vancomycin and clindamycin followed by oral linezolid MRSA ST30 3 weeks Chest drainage Complete resolution
  2-months, M Subcutaneous abscess in the left perimalleolar area No bone involvement on ankle MRI Intravenous teicoplanin and clindamycin MSSA ST1572 3 weeks Surgical drainage Complete resolution
  2-months, F Fever, coryza, poor feeding, followed by respiratory distress, drooling, bilateral laterocervical swelling and neck stiffness Retropharingeal abscess Intravenous vancomycin and clindamycin, followed by intravenous linezolid and then oral linezolid MSSA ST576 4 weeks Surgical drainage Complete resolution
Karli A, 2015, Turkey [19] 1 13-years, M Right hip pain, fever Increase signal in the right iliac crest and increased fluid in the right hip joint. Multiloculated abscess in the gluteal region (MRI).
Necrotizing pneumonia (CT)
Intravenous cefazolin and clindamycin followed by intravenous linezolid and clindamycin and then oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. MSSA
genotype not clarified.
38 days Surgical drainage Complete resolution
Karli A, 2016, Turkey [20] 1 12-years, M Fever, respiratory distress and hip pain. Poor general condition, somnolence. Multiple peripherally localized cavitary round lesions in both lungs (CT).
Left psoas muscle abscess and left femoral trochanter osteomyelitis (MRI)
Intravenous vancomycin followed by intravenous linezolid and then oral clindamycin MSSA genotype not clarified. 21 days of intravenous antibiotic treatment. Not clirifed the duration of oral antibiotic treatment. Surgical drainage Complete resolution
Hardgrib, 2016, Denmark [5] 1 13-years, M Fever, left-side knee pain. Follow by sepsis and respiratory distress Synovitis with knee joint effusion and signs of medullary osteomyelitis in the proximal tibia (MRI). Intravenous vancomycin and oral linezolid MRSA ST30 7 weeks Multiple surgical drainage Complete resolution
Ravishankar, 2016, USA [21] 1 10-years, F Emesis that progressed to respiratory distress, pallor and perioral cyanosis, and near syncope upon standing Not performed Intravenous vancomycin and ceftriaxone MRSA
genotype not clarified
Not applicable None Death
Irenji, 2018, United Kingdom [22] 1 13-years, M Severe right-side groin pain irradiated to his right leg and lower abdomen. Poor general condition, vomiting Iliac muscle abscess (ultrasound)
Abscesses anterior and posterior to the iliac crest (MRI)
Bilateral consolidation within the lung fields (CT)
Intravenous flucloxacillin and cefotaxime followed by intravenous linezolid and clindamycin. MSSA
genotype not clarified.
Not clarified Multiple surgical intervention Complete resolution
Ogata, 2019, Japan [23] 1 12-years, F Fever, lower back pain, followed by bladder dysfunction Panniculitis of the left retroperitoneal region, swelling of the left ileopsoas, and multiple vein thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (CT).
Hyperintensity around the left ileopsoas (MRI).
L4 osteomyelitis and abscess near L3 (MRI)
Intravenous ampicillin and cefotaxime. Followed by intravenous vancomycin subsequently associated with cefazolin and clindamycin. Clindamycin was then substituted with rifampicin. MSSA
Cefazolin for 5 weeks. Surgical intervention for the abscess near L3 Complete resolution