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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel ordered logistic regression among under-5 children in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Severe stunting and its associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in Ethiopia; multilevel ordinal logistic regression model

Stunting Random intercept model Community level factors House hold and individual factors Full model
Region
 Urban   1   1
 Rural   1.76 (1.24–2.48)   1.62 (1.14–2.30)**
 Developing   1.23 (0.87–1.74)   1.23 (0.86–1.76)
Residence
 Urban   1   1
 Rural   1.35 (0.96–1.90)   0.78 (0.51–1.18)
Community literacy
 Literate   1   1
 Illiterate   0.80 (0.66–0.957)   0.90 (0.73–1.11)
Community poverty index
 In poverty   1   1
  > poverty   1.37 (1.14–1.65)   1.08 (0.86–1.36)
wealth index
 Richest    1 1
 Richer    1.43 (1.03–1.97)** 1.37 (0.97–1.93)
 Middle    1.80 (1.30–2.50)** 1.84 (1.27–2.67)**
 Poorer    2.11 (1.51–2.95)** 2.13 (1.45–3.14)**
 Poorest    2.44 (1.76–3.39)** 2.52 (1.72–3.68)**
Water source
 Improved    1 1
 Un improved    0.88 (0.73–1.06) 0.87 (0.72–1.05)
Toilet
 Improved    1 1
 Un improved    1.12 (0.78–1.613) 1.11 (0.76–1.61)
Maternal age
 15–19    1 1
 20–35    0.54 (0.34–0.85) 0.51 (0.32–0.81)**
 36–49    0.48 (0.29–0.80) 0.41 (0.24–0.71)**
Maternal height    0.95 (0.93–0.96) 0.95 (0.93–0.96)**
Maternal Education
 No-education    1 1
 Primary    0.80 (0.67–0.950)* 0.84 (0.67–1.02)
 Secondary    0.62 (0.42–0.92)* 0.68 (0.45–1.02)
 Higher    0.35 (0.19–0.66)** 0.38 (0.20–0.74)**
Maternal BMI
 Normal    1 1
 Under-weight    0.49 (0.35–0.69) 0.52 (0.37–0.72)**
 Over-weight    3.33 (2.15–5.17) 3.43 (2.21–5.33)**
Child age (months)
 6–12    1 1
 12–23    3.64 (2.55–5.21) 3.72 (2.59–5.32)**
 24–35    5.43 (3.90–7.56) 5.52 (3.95–7.71)**
 36–47    5.12 (3.65–7.16) 5.17 (3.68–7.26)**
 48–59    3.98 (2.82–5.60) 4.11 (2.89–5.83)**
Child sex
 Female    1 1
 Male    1.28 (1.10–1.49) 1.26 (1.09–1.46)**
Birth order
 1 to 2    1 1
 3 to 4    0.96 (0.77–1.18) 0.94 (0.76–1.16)
 5 and above    1.24 (0.98–1.55) 1.20 (0.96–1.51)
Cut points
 Cut point 1 1.66 (1.51–1.83) 1.30 (1.00–1.60) −6.65(−8.98,-4.31) −6.42(−8.78,-4.07)
 Cut point 2 1.71 (1.59–1.82) 1.50 (2.19–2.80) −5.34(−7.66,-3.01) −5.12(−7.46,-2.78)
Cluster variance(θ) 0.45 (0.34–0.60) 0.38 (0.29–0.50)** 0.41 (0.31–0.53)** 0.40 (0.30–0.52)**
Median OR 1.90 (1.75–2.09) 1.80 (1.67–1.96) 1.84 (1.70–2.01) 1.83 (1.69–2.00)**
ICC (VPC) 0.12 (0.09–0.15)** 0.10 (0.08–0.13)** 0 .11 (0.09–0.14)** 0.11 (0.08–0.14)**
PCV   15.56% 8.89% 11.11%
  1. Note: * indicates statistical significance less than 0.05
  2. ** indicates statistical significance less than 0.01