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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the population, according to the degree of compromised myocardial function

From: Cardiac dysfunction in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An Italian single-center study

Baseline characteristics Total Group A
LVEF < 45%
Group B
LVEF ≥45%
p-value
Patient numbers (n) 32 10 22  
Age (years), median (IQR) 10 (7–13) 13 (5–15) 9 (7–13) ns
Gender ns
Male, n (%) 24 (75) 9 (90) 15 (68)  
Female, n (%) 8 (25) 1 (10) 7 (32)  
Overweight, n (%) 4 (12.4) 2 (20) 2 (9.5) ns
Ethnicity, n (%) ns
 Caucasian 24 (75) 6 (60) 18 (82)  
 African 2 (6.3) 1 (10) 1 (5)  
 Asian 1 (3.1) 0 (0) 1 (5)  
 Hispanic/Latino 5 (15.6) 3 (30) 2 (9,5)  
Organs ystems involved, n (%) ns
 2 13 (40.6) 4 (40) 7 (32)  
 3 10 (31.3) 3 (30) 8 (36)  
 4 8 (25) 3 (30) 5 (23)  
 5 1 (3.1) 0 (0) 2 (9)  
RT-PCR positive, n (%) 2 (6.3) 2 (20) 0 (0) 0.03
Serology-positive, n (%) 32 (100) 10 (100) 22 (100)
Fever, n (%) 32 (100) 10 (100) 22 (100)
Fever duration (days) 6 5.3 6.9 0.02
Gastrointestinal n (%) 30 (94) 10 (100) 20 (91) ns
 Vomit 19 (59) 5 (50) 14 (64) ns
 Diarrhea 20 (63) 9 (90) 11 (50) 0.04
 Abdominalpain 19 (59) 6 (60) 13 (59) ns
Dermatological (rash), n (%) 14 (44) 6 (60) 8 (36) ns
Shock, n (%) 8 (25) 6 (60) 2 (9) < 0.01
Conjiuntivitis, n (%) 18 (56) 5 (50) 13 (59) ns
Respiratory, n (%) 13 (41) 5 (50) 7 (32) ns
Extremitychanges, n (%) 7 (22) 3 (30) 4 (18) ns
Changes in the lips and oral cavity, n (%) 8 (25) 3 (30) 5 (23) ns
Neurological, n (%) 5 (16) 1 (10) 4 (18)  
 Headache 3 (9) 1 (10) 2 (9) ns
 Convulsion 3 (9) 1 (10) 2 (9) ns
Hospital stay (days) 13 14.5 11.5 ns
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission, n (%) 22 (69) 10 (100) 12 (54,5) 0.01
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit stay (days) 2 4.6 2 0.02
Non invasive ventilation, n (%) 12 (37.5) 5 (50) 7 (31.8) ns
Ventilation (days) 2.5 3.2 2.9 ns
Inotropic support, n (%) 11a (34.4) 7 (70) 4 (18.2) < 0.001
  1. LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction; PICU Pediatric intensive care unit
  2. aAll of them were supported with epinephrine, and 2 received also norepinephrine and levosimendan