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Table 1 Nutritional supplements in the prevention of COVID-19 disease

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviors in children and adolescents: an international overview

Nutritional supplement Suggested posology Food sources
Vitamin A 50,000–200,000 IU every 4–6 months Cheese, eggs, oil fish, fortified low-fat spreads, milk and yogurt
Vitamin C 100–200 mg/daily Fruits (i.e. orange, grapefruit, lime, mandarin, strawberries, kiwi, pineapple), tomato, broccoli, cabbage and spinach
Vitamin D 400–12,000 IU/daily Anchovies, swordfish, tuna, salmon, mushrooms and egg yolk
Vitamin E 6–11 mg/dailya Dried fruits (hazelnut, almonds, peanuts), vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables such as chicory, mango, avocado, and fish products such as salmon and shrimps
Iron 7–13 mg/dailya Red meat, beans, nuts, dried fruit such as dried apricots, fortified breakfast cereals and soy bean flour
Zinc 10–20 mg/daily Mature cheese, nuts (especially cashews and pecans), both red and white meat and fish products such as lobsters, mussles, clams and mullets
Selenium 50 mg/daily
Magnesium 170–250 mg/dailya Dark chocolate, avocado, nuts, legumes, tofu, seeds, whole grains, fatty fish (salmon, mackerel and halibut) and bananas
Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) 100–250 mg/dailya Fish especially salmon, herring, mackerel, sea bass and sea bream
  1. a European Food Safety Authority, available at www.efsa.europe.eu