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Table 1 Nutritional supplements in the prevention of COVID-19 disease

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviors in children and adolescents: an international overview

Nutritional supplement

Suggested posology

Food sources

Vitamin A

50,000–200,000 IU every 4–6 months

Cheese, eggs, oil fish, fortified low-fat spreads, milk and yogurt

Vitamin C

100–200 mg/daily

Fruits (i.e. orange, grapefruit, lime, mandarin, strawberries, kiwi, pineapple), tomato, broccoli, cabbage and spinach

Vitamin D

400–12,000 IU/daily

Anchovies, swordfish, tuna, salmon, mushrooms and egg yolk

Vitamin E

6–11 mg/dailya

Dried fruits (hazelnut, almonds, peanuts), vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables such as chicory, mango, avocado, and fish products such as salmon and shrimps


7–13 mg/dailya

Red meat, beans, nuts, dried fruit such as dried apricots, fortified breakfast cereals and soy bean flour


10–20 mg/daily

Mature cheese, nuts (especially cashews and pecans), both red and white meat and fish products such as lobsters, mussles, clams and mullets


50 mg/daily


170–250 mg/dailya

Dark chocolate, avocado, nuts, legumes, tofu, seeds, whole grains, fatty fish (salmon, mackerel and halibut) and bananas

Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs)

100–250 mg/dailya

Fish especially salmon, herring, mackerel, sea bass and sea bream

  1. a European Food Safety Authority, available at