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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of hyperinsulinism in newborns [6,7,8,9,10]

From: Cardiac hypertrophy and insulin therapy in a pre-term newborn: is there a relationship?

Disease Hyperinsulinism type Hyperinsulinism trigger cause/etiology
Transient Congenital hyperinsulinism Transient - Maternal Stress
- Asphyxia
- Intrauterine growth restriction
Persistent Congenital hyperinsulinism (also named persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy) Persistent Genetic disorders with mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11 gene, omim #600937) and SUR1 (ABCC8 gene, omim #600509) that cause a focal or diffuse overproduction of insulin in the pancreas
Maternal Diabetes Transient Gestational diabetes
Hyperinsulinism drug-related Transient Excessive infusion of insulin
Congenital disorders of glycosylation Persistent Autosomal recessive disorders characterized by defective biosynthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or compromised processing of protein-bound oligo- saccharides
Becwith-Wiedemann syndrome Persistent Complex multigenic hyperinsulinism syndrome caused by dysregulation of imprinted growth regulatory genes within the chromosome 11p15 region, including increased activity of the IGF-2 gene in several tissues
Costello syndrome Persistent Congenital hyperinsulinism syndrome caused by mu- tations in the HRAS proto-oncogene