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Table 2 Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics of newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes before (Group I) and during (Group II) COVID-19 pandemic

From: Peculiar characteristics of new-onset Type 1 Diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic

  Group I Group II P
Clinical presentation
 Severe DKA (pH < 7.1, yes%) 11/132 (8.4%) 9/40 (22.5%) 0.01 0.04*
 Moderate DKA (pH < 7.2, yes%) 18/132 (13.6%) 6/40 (15%)  
 Mild DKA (pH < 7.3, yes%) 19/132 (14.4%) 7/40 (17.5%)  
 No DKA (pH > 7.3, yes%) 84/132 (63.6%) 18/40 (45%) 0.03
Blood Gas Analysis
 pH 7.28 ± 0.12 7.23 ± 0.14 0.01
 HCO3 (mmol/L) 16.8 ± 6.3 14.8 ± 7.8 0.15
 B.E -10.8 ± 10.4 -13.8 ± 9.7 0.13
Glycemic Metabolism
 Glycemia (mg/dL) 395 ± 143 399 ± 130 0.81
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 103.7 ± 26 107.0 ± 27.6 0.46
 C-peptide (ng/mL) 0.59 ± 0.56 0.50 ± 0.51 0.12
T1D Autoimmunity    
 GAD Ab (U/ml) 279 ± 515 464 ± 1105 0.27
 IA2 Ab (UI/mL) 341 ± 867 111 ± 145 0.11
 Insula Ab (positive/negative) 29/103 14/26 0.09
Celiac Screening
 Anti-TG IgA (positive/negative) 5/127 6/34 0.02
 Anti-TG IgG (positive/negative) 2/130 4/36 0.02
 EMA (positive/negative) 7/125 2/38 0.94
Thyroid Function
 TSH (µIU/mL) 2.47 ± 1.24 2.34 ± 2.02 0.07
 fT4 (ng/dL) 1.24 ± 0.24 1.04 ± 0.13 0.001
 TPO Ab (IU/mL) 0/132 1/39 0.07
 Tg Ab (IU/mL) 0/132 1/39 0.07
Lipid profile
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 153 ± 33 158 ± 27 0.47
 HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) 45 ± 13 40 ± 7 0.14
 LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) 92 ± 31 100 ± 24 0.30
 Tryglicerides (mg/dL) 94 ± 54 116 ± 61 0.01
 Tg/HDL ratio 2.04 ± 1.18 3.17 ± 2.24 0.004
  1. *Severe/moderate vs mild/no-DKA