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Table 1 The basic characteristics of participating children

From: Association of waist circumference with blood pressure and familial dietary habits in preschool children: a cross-sectional study in northeastern China

  Males (n = 384) Females (n = 221) P
Children’s characteristics
 Age (years), \(\overline{\mathrm{X}}\left(\mathrm{S}\right)\) 4.4 (1.0) 4.4 (1.2) 0.919
 Birth weight (kg), \(\overline{\mathrm{X}}\left(\mathrm{S}\right)\) 3.5 (0.5) 3.4 (0.4) 0.652
Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, median (P25, P75)
 Height (cm) 111.4 (105.0, 118.0) 110.5 (102.5, 117.2) 0.227
 Weight (kg) 10.4 (8.8, 12.6) 10.1 (8.3, 12.2) 0.094
 WC (cm) 54.9 (51.0, 62.0) 55.0 (51.0, 62.0) 0.748
 BMI 16.8 (15.4, 19.5) 16.7 (15.4, 19.2) 0.396
 WHtR 0.5 (0.5, 0.6) 0.50 (0.5, 0.6) 0.529
 DBP (mmHg) 90.0 (85.0, 99.0) 90.0 (84.0, 96.0) 0.273
 SBP (mmHg) 60.0 (50.0, 62.0) 60.0 (50.0, 60.0) 0.139
Weight and blood pressure status, n (%)
 Healthy weight 188 (49.0) 114 (51.6)  
 Overweight 54 (14.1) 31 (14.0) 0.797
 Obesity 142 (37.0) 76 (34.4)  
 WHtR ≥0.5 197 (51.3) 111 (50.2) 0.841
 WC ≥ P80 209 (54.5) 132 (59.7) 0.184
 Elevated BP 69 (18.0) 38 (17.2) 0.783
Food preferences, n (%)
 Puffed foods ≥ once per week 175 (45.7) 107 (48.6) 0.505
 Deep-fried foods ≥ twice per week 59 (15.3) 33 (15.1) 0.947
 Potatoes and other root vegetables ≥4 times per week 168 (43.8) 94 (42.5) 0.769
 Milk ≥6 times per week 179 (46.6) 107 (48.4) 0.729
 Nuts ≥3 times per week 299 (77.9) 180 (81.4) 0.365
 Sweets ≥3 times per week 101 (26.3) 60 (27.1) 0.82
 Eating wheat and wheat products as their staple food 54 (14.1) 36 (16.3) 0.459
Eating habits, n (%)
 Appetite
  Good 239 (62.2) 131 (59.3)  
  Average 135 (35.2) 77 (34.8) 0.139
  Poor 10 (2.6) 13 (5.4)  
 Eating speed
  Fast 90 (23.4) 41 (18.5)  
  Average 220 (57.3) 123 (55.7) 0.088
  Slow 74 (19.3) 57 (25.8)  
 Eating while watching TV 167 (43.5) 93 (42.1) 0.648
 Snacking while watching TV 142 (37.0) 98 (44.5) 0.067
Other behaviours, median (P25, P75)
 Sleep (hours) 11.0 (10.1, 12.0) 11.0 (10.0, 12.0) 0.124
 Physical activity (hours) 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) 0.601
Parental characteristics
 Parental BMI, median (P25, P75)
  Maternal BMI 22.0 (20.3, 24.1) 22.0 (20.4, 23.9) 0.730
  Paternal BMI 25.1 (22.8, 27.8) 25.5 (23.1, 28.0) 0.876
Familial monthly income (¥), n (%)
  < 3000 22 (5.7) 20 (9.0) 0.237
 3000 to 5000 90 (23.4) 45 (20.4)  
 5000 to 8000 130 (33.9) 65 (29.4)  
  > 8000 142 (37.0) 91 (41.2)  
Parental education level, n (%)
 Secondary school or less 110 (28.7) 54 (24.4) 0.510
 College or Bachelor’s degree 240 (62.5) 145 (65.6)  
 Graduate degree 34 (8.9) 22 (10.0)  
Maternal education level, n (%)
 Secondary school or less 104 (27.1) 54 (24.4) 0.298
 College or Bachelor’s degree 242 (63.0) 152 (68.8)  
 Graduate degree 38 (9.9) 15 (6.8)  
Parental control and guidance, n (%)
 Parental encouragement to eat a diverse range of foods 202 (52.6) 116 (52.5) 0.978
 Using food as a reward 137 (35.7) 88 (39.8) 0.434
 Limiting the amounts of snacks 324 (84.4) 173 (78.3) 0.103
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body-mass index, WC waist circumference, WHtR wasit-to-height ratio, DPB diastolic blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, P percentile, BP blood pressure, ZBMI standardized z-score values of BMI, ZWC standardized z-score values of WC, ZWHtR standardized z-score values of WHtR
  2. *significant at P <  0.05